Simple Elliptical Galaxy UGC 1382 Astonishes Astronomers

With 10 times the mass than first estimates and a younger inner region than outer, this out-of-the-way galaxy appears to be composed of assorted parts from other island universes 

pia20695-16

Space news (astrophysics: unusual, rare galaxy types; UGC 1382) – 250 million light-years from Earth in an out-of-the-way, isolated little corner of the cosmos – 

Living in a suburban neighborhood of an out-of-the-way little town or city is beneficial if you want to stop change due to foreign influences and exchanges. In a similar way, astronomers believe humongous, bizarre galaxy UGC 1382 kept its stunning size and the backward ages of its inner and outer components. At around 720,000 light-years across its more than seven times wider than the Milky Way and one of the largest isolated galaxies detected during the human journey to the beginning of space and time. The inner regions of this unusual galaxy are also younger than its outer parts, which would be like finding a tree whose inner growth rings are younger than its outer rings. It’s like UGC 1382 was put together from different parts of other galaxies that are held together by a delicate balance between processes and forces. An equilibrium scientists study in order to gain more understanding and knowledge of the evolution of galaxies and the universe. 

Mark Seibert Credits: Carnegie Observatories
Mark Seibert Credits: Carnegie Observatories

“This rare, ‘Frankenstein’ galaxy formed and is able to survive because it lies in a quiet little suburban neighborhood of the universe, where none of the hubbub of the more crowded parts can bother it,” said study co-author Mark Seibert of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, California. “It is so delicate that a slight nudge from a neighbor would cause it to disintegrate.” 

The Galaxy Evolution Explorer Credits: NASA/JPL/Cal-tech
The Galaxy Evolution Explorer Credits: NASA/JPL/Cal-tech

Seibert and graduate student Lea Hagen discovered the massive size and backward ages of the inner and outer portions of UGC 1382 while looking at images of the galaxy taken by NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) in ultraviolet wavelengths. They had been searching for data on star formation in average elliptical galaxies, instead, a titan with intangible arms extending far outside UGC 1382 emerged from the darkness.   

“We saw spiral arms extending far outside this galaxy, which no one had noticed before, and which elliptical galaxies should not have,” said Hagen, who led the study. “That put us on an expedition to find out what this galaxy is and how it formed.” 

Painstakingly searching through data of the galaxy obtained by a team of telescopes astronomers built a new model of the structure and dimensions of this mysterious behemoth. Spanning nearly 720,000 light-years, UGC 1382 is one of the largest galaxies ever discovered. Very few new stars form in this island universe because gas is spread thinly along its rotating disk. Astronomers are studying the history of star formation and evolution of this unusual galaxy looking for clues to explain the mysteries uncovered. 

The most tantalizing clue’s the relative ages of the various parts of galaxy UGC 1382 are backward compared to previous galaxies observed during the human journey to the beginning of space and time. Normally, astrophysicists expect to see new star formation primarily in the outer, newer regions of a galaxy, while the older, inner regions contain mainly older stars. By combining data collected by the team, scientists determined the unusual structure and evolution of star formation in this massive galaxy. 

“The center of UGC 1382 is actually younger than the spiral disk surrounding it,” Seibert said. “It’s old on the outside and young on the inside. This is like finding a tree whose inner growth rings are younger than the outer rings.” 

The final conclusion

Astronomers think this unique galaxy resulted around 3 billion years ago when two smaller galaxies began orbiting a larger, possibly lenticular galaxy, which eventually settled into current galaxy UGC 1382. They continue to study this unusual galaxy looking for additional clues to explain its unique structure and evolution compared to other members of the Galaxy Zoo. This data will enable the search for more examples of this galaxy to help explain its unusual structure and evolution. 

“By understanding this galaxy, we can get clues to how galaxies form on a larger scale, and uncover more galactic neighborhood surprises,” Hagen said. 

Learn how astronomers think galaxy CGCG254-021 Got Its Tail.

Read about giant elliptical galaxy Centaurus A.

Learn more about lenticular galaxies.

Take the space voyage of NASA

Learn more about the space discoveries of the ESA here

Read and learn more about galaxy UGC 1382

Learn more about the discoveries made by the GALEX mission here

Discover NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Learn more about NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) here

Learn more about the Sloan Sky Survey

Read about the discoveries made by the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) here

Discover the cosmos on board the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Very Large Array

Read about the space discoveries of Carnegie’s du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory here

Advertisements

The Helix Nebula: The Eye of God

Expelled outer layers of white dwarf glowing brightly in the infrared 

693952main_pia15817-full_full

Space news (astrophysics: planetary nebula; Helix Nebula) – 650 light-years from Earth toward the constellation Aquarius – 

This composite image shows a visually stunning planetary nebula labeled “The Eye of God” more serious observers call the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293). Planetary nebula are the remains of a dying star much like our own Sol, only 5 billion years in the future. At this time the Sun will run out of hydrogen to use as its fuel source for the fusion process and will start using helium to create heavier carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Once it runs out of helium to fuse, it will die and expel its outer gas layers, leaving a tiny, hot core called a white dwarf. An Earth-sized core so dense a teaspoon full would weigh more than a few black rhinos. 

First discovered in the 18th century, planetary nebula like the Helix Nebula emit across a similar, broad spectrum from ultraviolet to infrared. The image shown at the top uses a combination of ultraviolet radiation collected by NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer ((GALEX in blue(0.15 to 2.3 microns)) and infrared light detected by their Spitzer Space Telescope ((red(8 to 24 microns) and green(3.6 to 4.5 microns)) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ((WISE in red(3.4 to 4.5 microns)) showing the subtle differences observed in the different wavelengths of light emitted by ghostly celestial objects like NGC 7293 and NGC 6369 (The Little Ghost). 

Dust makes this cosmic eye look red. This eerie Spitzer Space Telescope image shows infrared radiation from the well-studied Helix Nebula (NGC 7293), which is a mere 700 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The two light-year diameter shroud of dust and gas around a central white dwarf has long been considered an excellent example of a planetary nebula, representing the final stages in the evolution of a sun-like star. Spitzer data show the nebula's central star is itself immersed in a surprisingly bright infrared glow. Models suggest the glow is produced by a dust debris disk. Even though the nebular material was ejected from the star many thousands of years ago, the close-in dust could be generated by collisions in a reservoir of objects analogous to our own solar system's Kuiper Belt or cometary Oort cloud. Formed in the distant planetary system, the comet-like bodies have otherwise survived even the dramatic late stages of the star's evolution. Image credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, Kate Su (Steward Obs, U. Arizona) et al.
Dust makes this cosmic eye look red. This eerie Spitzer Space Telescope image shows infrared radiation from the well-studied Helix Nebula (NGC 7293), which is a mere 700 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The two light-year diameter shroud of dust and gas around a central white dwarf has long been considered an excellent example of a planetary nebula, representing the final stages in the evolution of a sun-like star.
Spitzer data show the nebula’s central star is itself immersed in a surprisingly bright infrared glow. Models suggest the glow is produced by a dust debris disk. Even though the nebular material was ejected from the star many thousands of years ago, the close-in dust could be generated by collisions in a reservoir of objects analogous to our own solar system’s Kuiper Belt or cometary Oort cloud. Formed in the distant planetary system, the comet-like bodies have otherwise survived even the dramatic late stages of the star’s evolution.
Image credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, Kate Su (Steward Obs, U. Arizona) et al.

Astronomers have studied planetary nebulae like the Helix Nebula and M2-9 (Wings of a Butterfly Nebula) as much as any recorded during the human journey to the beginning of space and time. The remnant of a rapidly evolving star near the end of its lifespan, the white dwarf star is a tiny, barely perceptible point of light at the center of the nebula in this composite image. Thousands of planetary nebula have been detected within a distance of about 100 million light-years of Earth and astronomers estimate about 10,000 exist in the Milky Way. Making planetary nebula a relatively common celestial mystery observed as we trace our roots to their beginning. 

Watch this YouTube video on the Helix Nebula.

pn_block-1
This collage of planetary nebula images was put together by NASA technicians to express the beauty and wonder of planetary nebula. Credits: NASA

Read and learn about the icy blue wings of planetary nebula Hen 2-437.

Read about planetary nebula Menzel 2.

Learn about the last days of planetary nebula Hen 2-362.

Learn more about the Helix Nebula here

Read and learn more about planetary nebulae

Join the space journey of NASA here

Learn more about NASA’s GALEX

Discover the Spitzer Space Telescope here

Read and discover more about NGC 6369. 

Learn more about what NASA’s WISE has discovered about the infrared cosmos here

Discover the Wings of a Butterfly Nebula.  

Dancing Black Holes Destined to Merge Emit Weird Light Signal

A collision triggering a titanic release of energy with the power of 100 million supernovae

This simulation helps explain an odd light signal thought to be coming from a close-knit pair of merging black holes, PG 1302-102, located 3.5 billion light-years away. Credits: Columbia University
This simulation helps explain an odd light signal thought to be coming from a close-knit pair of merging black holes, PG 1302-102, located 3.5 billion light-years away.
Credits: Columbia University

Space news (February 07, 2016) – A weird, odd light, 3.5 billion light-years away, called PG 1302-102 –

Astronomers working with NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) believe they have the most compelling data yet for the existence of merging black holes. Two black holes astronomers think are in the act of merging called PG 1302-102, appear to be emitting a strange, cyclical light signal. 

NASA's GALEX spacecraft scans the night sky. Credit: JPL/NASA
NASA’s GALEX spacecraft scans the night sky.
Credit: JPL/NASA

Trapped within their combined gravity well at a distance slightly bigger than our solar system, they’re destined to collide in less than a million years and trigger a titanic blast that will be heard across the universe. 

Astronomers first identified PG 1302-102 early this year as one of a number of candidate black hole pairs after they detected a weird light signal emanating from the center of a galaxy. After study and thought scientists demonstrated the varying signal detected is probably produced by the movement of two black holes orbiting each other every five years.

Black holes don’t emit light, but the material surrounding a black hole can. Astronomers used ultraviolet data to track the changing light patterns of PG 1302-102 during the past two decades to make this demonstration. 

We were lucky to have GALEX data to look through,” said co-author David Schiminovich of Columbia University in New York. “We went back into the GALEX archives and found that the object just happened to have been observed six times.”

Astronomers were able to test their prediction that black holes generate a cyclical light pattern. In the case of PG, 1302-102 scientists think one of the pairs of black holes emits more light, which means it’s devouring more material than its partner. During a five-year orbit of one pair of black holes, the light they emit changes and brightens to maximum when it points toward us.

It’s as if a 60-Watt light bulb suddenly appears to be 100 Watts,” explained Daniel D’Orazio, lead author of the study from Columbia University. “As the black hole light speeds away from us, it appears as a dimmer 20-Watt bulb.”

Astronomers call this a relativistic boosting effect, which has previously been detected using visible light. This pair of black holes is traveling toward us at speeds considered relativistic, with the fastest traveling at nearly seven percent the speed of light. 

At this speed, light is squeezed to shorter wavelengths as it travels toward us, in the same way, a train’s whistle squeals at higher frequencies as it comes towards you. This boosts and brightens the light detected, producing the periodic brightening and dimming observed.

D’Orazio, Schiminovich, and colleagues modeled the way it should look in ultraviolet light based on research done by other scientists in visible light. They calculated that if the previous brightening and dimming were due to the relativistic boosting effect as was seen in visible light? It should be detected at ultraviolet wavelengths but amplified about 2.5 times. After checking, they discovered their prediction matched ultraviolet light data provided by the Hubble Space Telescope and GALEX. 

We are strengthening our ideas of what’s going on in this system and starting to understand it better,” said Zoltán Haiman, a co-author from Columbia University who conceived the project.

Astronomers will now use the theories and ideas they develop through the study of PG 1302-102 to help understand merging black holes better and find more binary black hole pairs to observe. 

Once astronomers add the data they collect on merging black holes using the Hubble Space Telescope, GALEX and other observatories to the data they expect to achieve through the study and observation of gravitational waves. It will give us a better idea of the population of merging black holes across the universe and lift the veil on cosmic secrets sure to delight the soul.

Cosmic delights await!

You can learn more about the Hubble Space Telescope here.

Discover GALEX here.

Learn more about black holes here.

Learn more about the present theory on binary black holes here.

Read about astronomers stunning observations of gravitational waves.

Find out what astronomers believe hides beneath the icy shell of Saturn’s moon Enceladus.

Discover the secrets NASA’s New Horizons has been telling astronomers about Pluto.