Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality. (Herman Minkowski, 1908)
The universe is made of different types of matter and energy traveling through space as time passes unnoticed. Until the time of Einstein, scientists thought and discussed time and space as though they’re absolute and distinct, which is the way they appear to our senses in everyday life. But what if reality is different then it appears?
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Albert Einstein introduced the idea of space and time intertwined in an amazing manner described mathematically by Einstein’s theories of relativity. A scientific theory originally published as two separate parts; the general and special theories of relativity, Einstein’s theories of relativityare currently the most accurate method scientists have to predict physical theory in our universe.
The goal of this series of articles is to show the ability of Einstein’s space-time to help us understand the true nature of physical reality in the universe. This will be accomplished by first providing knowledge and understanding of the flat space-time of the special theory of relativity and consequences of the theory such as length contraction, the twin paradox and time dilation. Next, we’ll offer an introduction to the nature and consequences of the curved space-time of the general theory of relativity, including the idea of an ever-expanding universe, and the nature and meaning of black holes.
The first article in the series is titled “Einstein’s Revelations on Space-time”. This article will be posted during the months ahead and talk about the life and work of Albert Einstein and its stunning revelations for space-time. Einstein’s theories of relativity and their dramatic consequences concerning the true nature of space-time are considered by many to be the greatest scientific discovery of the century. They have replaced ideas concerning the true nature of space and time believed since the age of Newton and Galileo, and are often difficult to grasp at first. In order to better comprehend the theories of relativity readers need to abandon preconceived notions concerning the nature of time and distance measurements, simultaneity, and causality in the universe.
Time and distance measurements in Einstein’s space-time will surprise and startle you and simultaneous events will fool you if you aren’t mentally sharp. The limiting nature of the speed of light also results in interesting consequences for cause and effect in the universe.
Astronomy questions and answers – You have probably heard the expression, “We’re all just star dust” The truth is, depending on the age of the atoms in your body, you could have been stardust several times, by now. The average length of time astronomers estimate it takes atoms discharged during a supernova in the Milky Way to be recycled into a new star or solar system is several billion years.
How old is the stardust in you?
Figuring out the true age of the atoms in your body is going to be the hard part. Astronomers can give you an estimate for the age of the solar system, the Milky Way, and the universe. The numbers are insignificant to the question since we have no way of knowing where your atoms have been during the estimated 13.798 + or – 0.037 billion years the universe has been in existence. Your atoms could have been part of any number of solar systems and stars, by now.
We could narrow the estimate a bit, for you, but we would need to make two assumptions. Firstly, that the Milky Way is the only galaxy your atoms have been a part of during the past. This is most likely the case since astronomers believe galaxies formed relatively soon after the Big Bang. Secondly, that the heavy atoms in your body have only been part of one supernova during their existence. This assumption could possibly be a bit of a stretch, but even being part of one supernova, and returning to be reconsolidated would take several billion years. Once we do this, it becomes easier to narrow the estimate a bit.
A grain of stardust ejected during a supernova can follow a few different roads. It could be flung right out of its host galaxy as part of the galactic wind. Astronomers estimate maybe half of the star dust in the Milky Way presently will eventually follow this road. A percentage of this star dust will certainly be destroyed by the Milky Way’s hot halo, while the remainder will fall back into the galaxy. All most all of the stardust ejected from the galaxy in this way will never become part of a new star or solar system. The whole process is estimated by astronomers to take at least 10 billion years. Since we assume the heavy atoms of your body have only been part of the Milky Way and a single supernova, 10 billion years is an upper limit of the age of the atoms in your body.
Dust grains that aren’t ejected from the galaxy during a supernova event will become part of the interstellar medium (ISM). This is the low-density stardust that makes up the space between the stars. The majority of this stardust will also never make it into a new star or solar system. The star dust that does make it back into a new star or solar system will take several billion years to complete the process, as we mentioned above. Several means more than one or two, but not much more, so we’ll say around five billion years it has taken the atoms in your body to become part of the solar system. Astronomers studying the solar system also believe the solar system is around 4.6 billion years old, give or take a few million, and this is close to our estimate of 5 billion years old.
A rough estimate of the age of the stardust in you
There you have a rough estimate of the age of the atoms in your body. From 5 to 10 billion years, given the two assumptions we made. The real point is we are all made of stardust, no matter the age of the atoms in our body.
Click this link to watch a documentary with Neal DeGrasse Tyson on whether we are made of stardust.
Stars begin life as clouds of cold gas and dust that transform into blazing hot fireballs
Star dust, star dust, burning bright
Amid the glare of ancient light
Eternity stares back from the past
Reborn we’ll be one day at last
NASA astronomy: stellar astrophysics
Astronomy questions and answers – September 19, 2013 – Walk out to a dark viewing spot anywhere on the Earth on a clear night and look up at the night sky. Your eyes will take in ancient light from stars in the Milky Way that covers the whole sky above you. Deep within the stellar nurseries of the Milky Way new stars are being formed using processes NASA astronomers are currently studying in an attempt to understand how stars are born. Star forming processes responsible for the formation of the stars you see in the night sky. Processes they can see at work in the stellar nurseries of the Milky Way, like the Orion Nebula (M42) and Cygnus X.
Journey with me to stellar nurseries deep within the dark regions of the Milky Way, the dark patches you can see in the night sky above. The birthing grounds of young stars in the Milky Way, these dark patches in the night sky are in fact clouds of interstellar gas that appear dark because they block the starlight from distant stars. Astronomers believe deep within the birthing grounds of the Milky Way, new stars are being formed at the rate of about 2 or 3 new stars each year.
Star formation theories
Present theories on star formation put forth by NASA astronomers show star formation is a complicated process affected by nearby massive stars, other star forming regions, and even the spiral structure of the Milky Way. These theories only become more complicated when astronomers look at the formation of groups of stars.
In order to try to simulate star formation, some astronomers use sophisticated computer models, while others incorporate observations in different wavelengths and use them to create three-dimensional images of the sky. Working together these two different groups of astronomers are trying to determine exactly how stars are born.
NASA astronomers working on present theories of star formation think the Milky Way is filled with clouds of gas and dust they call the interstellar medium. They also think slight over densities within these clouds of gas and dust could trigger star formation, over densities that could be produced by the turbulent forces present in these clouds of gas and dust. Astronomers studying slight over densities within star forming clouds of gas and dust believe these slightly denser regions could eventually become main sequence stars within a few million years.
Some NASA astronomers believe the intense radiation from groups of hot, bright stars located close to one another could create the necessary turbulence in the interstellar medium to trigger star formation. Other astronomers believe nearby galaxies and even large clouds of gas and dust could cause turbulence in the interstellar medium which could also be part of the star forming process. Many astronomers also believe the resulting shock wave after a supernova could create spiral density waves capable of compressing material and initiating star formation.
Gravity at Work
Present theories on the formation of main sequence stars being proposed by NASA astronomers involves the force of gravity. Gravity pulls the gas and dust within the interstellar medium into denser regions, which results in a cloud increasing in size and contracting. The rotation velocity of the cloud increases as it contracts due to conservation of angular momentum, in the same way a figure skater’s spin speed increases as they bring their arms closer to their body.
At the same time the temperature in the core of the cloud increases as it shrinks due to the force of gravity. The charged particles within the cloud at this time can only move in specific directions in the magnetic field in the region. This results in the rotational velocity of the cloud slowing, but not stopping, otherwise astronomers think stars would never form in these dense clouds of gas and dust.
In the case of main sequence stars astronomers think regions of dense clouds of gas and dust would begin to contract to an area the size of our solar system tens of thousands of years after beginning to slow. At this time astronomers think the temperature at the centre of dense clouds of dust and gas would be in the region of 10,000 kelvins. They call the central region of such a cloud at this time a protostar.
Protostars at this time in their life cycle are often more luminous than the main sequence star they eventually become, because they have a greater surface from which to radiate energy. This brightness allows NASA astronomers to view protostars as they continue to gravitationally attract more gas and dust, shrink and heat up internally. The luminosity of a protostar begins to decrease as it’s outer surface shrinks under the force of gravity. Astronomers believe the cloud and protostar eventually spin faster and flatten out into a disk.
Astronomers using data collected by several different astronomical instruments recently presented far-infrared images of three Class 0 protostar systems in Perseus: L1448C, the triple system L1448N, and IRAS 03282+3035. Seven hundred and fifty light-years from Earth, all three of these protostars were seen powering bipolar molecular outflows, which astronomers think are in fact epic jets of water being thrust into interstellar space. Calculations by NASA astronomers indicates these jets of water are shooting out into interstellar space at speeds of around 120,000 miles per hour and at a rate equal to about 100 million times the volume of water flowing in the Amazon every second of the day.
Astronomers think these jets of water and material help to channel radiation and mass away from the protostar, which helps to clear the central region of debris and reveal the protostar. They also think it could be possible the galaxy was seeded with water through this process, which might change thoughts on the possibility of life in the galaxy. The remaining material is then accreted by the protostar, or forms part of a residual disk, which NASA astronomers think could form planets.
The core of a protostar will reach 1 million kelvin at sometime during the contraction and heating up of the cloud, at which time it will begin fusing deuterium to helium. Deuterium is the easiest nucleus to fuse, so it makes sense this would be the starting point. Once the core has contracted enough to reach a density where the core reaches 10 million degrees kelvins, hydrogen nuclei will begin fusing into helium. At this point star astronomers also think a protostar will reach an equilibrium point where the radiative energy from fusion balances gravitational pull of its mass. This new star is now a main sequence star, which has formed over millions of years.
Simulating the Birth of a Star
The process of star birth takes millions of years to complete, so how do astronomers determine the way outside factors affect the process by which new stars are born? Modern astronomers are presently using supercomputers to help simulate star formation models in the hope they can determine why the mass distribution of newly formed stars appears to be universal. They want to understand why this average mass of newly formed stars exists. They also want to know the process by which it occurs.
Present star formation models take into account the effects of thermodynamics, magnetic fields, radiative processes, and of course gravity. Star astronomers are also trying to determine other factors they need to include in models, like the way new stars affect their own star forming environments. This includes factors like young stars heating up the gas and dust surrounding them and moving gas and dust around through bipolar molecular flows.
The key question NASA astronomers want to answer at this point is whether or not present star formation models can reproduce the properties of exact parts of the star forming process. Astronomers will also want to determine the most massive star that can be formed depending on the size of a cloud of dust and gas. They’ll try to find answers by looking at the chemical composition, magnetic fields, ionization, age and other factors of large clouds of star forming dust and gas in the night sky.
Peering into Stellar Nurseries
How do NASA astronomers look into the heart of stellar nurseries in the Milky Way? Astronomers use instruments designed to detect specific wavelengths of light radiation emitted during the formation of new stars. During the beginning stages of star birth a new star emits radio waves as it contracts astronomers look for as an indicator of new star formation. At this time the core of a contracting cloud of gas and dust is too cold to emit visible and infrared radiation.
Once the cloud forms a protostar it will begin to emit light radiation, which will be blocked by the material surrounding the new star. The light radiation emitted by a protostar is absorbed by the surrounding material, which radiates infrared radiation toward Earth NASA astronomers detect using space and ground-based telescopes specifically designed for the job.
Astronomers have used the Spitzer Space Telescope to view hundreds of protostars forming in large clouds of gas and dust in the stellar nurseries of the Milky Way. In the future they’ll use instruments and telescopes designed to detect millimetre waves in the microwave range in order to get a better view of the beginning stages of star birth. To date astronomers report detecting a compact source embedded in cold gas within stellar nurseries only detectable at these wavelengths.
NASA astronomers trying to piece together the puzzle of star formation in the Milky Way are also using reconstructed images of star-forming regions from past observations. Using 2-D images, positional data, and velocities for an entire cloud, they have been able to create 3-D models researchers can then analyze. 3-D models that show unforeseen structures hidden within stellar nurseries and even regions of star formation they weren’t expecting to see.
Click this link to watch a You Tube videos on how a star is born