Rear-end Collisions Between High-speed Knots in Relativistic Jet

Produces shocks that accelerate particles, illuminating the colliding material 

The Hubble Space Telescope took this image of the core region of galaxy NGC 3862 with relativistic jet of material visible as line of light in the 3 o'clock position. Images to the right show knots of material outlined in blue, red and green moving along the jet over two decades. X marks the supermassive black hole. Credits: NASA/ESA/Hubble
The Hubble Space Telescope took this image of the core region of galaxy NGC 3862 with relativistic jet of material visible as line of light in the 3 o’clock position. Images to the right show knots of material outlined in blue, red and green moving along the jet over two decades. X marks the supermassive black hole.
Credits: NASA/ESA/Hubble

Space news (astrophysics: relativistic jets; shock collisions inside particle jets) – Observing plasma jet blasting from supermassive black hole in core of galaxy NGC 3862, 260 million light-years from Earth toward the constellation Leo in the rich galaxy cluster Abell 1367 –

Astronomers recently made an interesting discovery while studying data collected by the Hubble Space Telescope over two decades of observing the core of elliptical galaxy NGC 3862.  They were originally looking to create a time-lapse video of a relativistic jet blasting from the supermassive black hole thought to reside within its core. Instead, they discovered a rear-end collision between two separate high-speed waves of material ejected by a monster black hole whose mass astronomers have yet to measure. In this case, scientists believe the rear-end collision accelerated and heated particles which illuminated the colliding material for Hubble to see.

The relativistic jet erupting from the accretion disk of the supermassive black hole thought to reside at the core of galaxy NGC 3862 is one of the most studied and therefore best understood. It’s also one of the few active galaxies with jets observed in visible light. It appears to stream out of the accretion disk at speeds several times the speed of light, but this is just a visual illusion referred to as superluminal motion created by the combination of insanely fast velocities and our line of sight being almost on point. It forms a narrow beam hundreds of light-years in length that eventually begins to spread out like a cone, before forming clumps at around 1,000 light-years. Clumps scientists study looking for clues pointing to facts they can use to learn more about these plasma jets and the cosmos.

Astronomers have observed knots of material being ejected from dense stellar objects previously during the human journey to the beginning of space and time. This is one of the few times they have detected knots with an optical telescope thousands of light-years from a supermassive black hole. It’s the certainly the first time we have detected a rear-end collision between separately ejected knots in a relativistic jet. 

“Something like this has never been seen before in an extragalactic jet,” said Eileen Meyer of NASA’s Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). “As the knots continue merging they will brighten further in the coming decades. This will allow us a very rare opportunity to see how the energy of the collision is dissipated into radiation.”

What would cause successive jets of material to achieve varying speeds? One theory involves the idea of material falling onto the supermassive black hole being superheated and ejected along its spin axis. Ejected material is constrained by the powerful magnetic fields surrounding the monster black hole into a narrow beam. If the flow of falling material isn’t perfectly smooth, knots are ejected in a string, rather than a continuous beam or steady hose.

It’s possible knots ejected later travel through a less dense interstellar medium, which would result in varying speeds. In this scenario, a knot launched after another knot would eventually catch up and rear-end it. 

Beyond learning knots of material ejected in plasma jets erupting from the accretion disk of a supermassive black hole sometimes rear-end each other, astronomers are interested in this second case of superluminal motion observed in jets hundreds, thousands of light-years from the source supermassive black hole. This indicates the jets are still moving at nearly the speed of light at distances rivaling the scale of the host galaxy and still contain tremendous energy. Understanding this could help astronomers determine more about the evolution of galaxies as the cosmos ages, including our own Milky Way.

Astronomers are also trying to figure out why galaxy NGC 3862 is one of the few they have detected jets in optical wavelengths? They haven’t been able to come up with any good theories on why some jets are detected in visible light and others aren’t. 

Work goes on

Work at the institute continues. Meyer is currently working on additional videos using Hubble images of other relativistic jets in nearby galaxies to try to detect superluminal motion. This is only possible due to the longevity of the Hubble Space Telescope and ingenuity of engineers and scientists from NASA and the ESA. Hopefully, they could discover more clues to answer these questions and other mysteries gnawing at the corner of my mind.

Watch this video made by Eileen Meyer of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland using archival data from two decades of Hubble Space Telescope observations of galaxy NGC 3862.

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Magnetic Lines of Force Emanating from Supermassive Black Hole

Move like a whip with one end held firmly by the hand of the gravitational monster within 

This cartoon shows how magnetic waves, called Alfvén S-waves, propagate outward from the base of black hole jets. The jet is a flow of charged particles, called a plasma, which is launched by a black hole. The jet has a helical magnetic field (yellow coil) permeating the plasma. The waves then travel along the jet, in the direction of the plasma flow, but at a velocity determined by both the jet's magnetic properties and the plasma flow speed. The BL Lac jet examined in a new study is several light-years long, and the wave speed is about 98 percent the speed of light. Fast-moving magnetic waves emanating from a distant supermassive black hole undulate like a whip whose handle is being shaken by a giant hand, according to a study using data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array. Scientists used this instrument to explore the galaxy/black hole system known as BL Lacertae (BL Lac) in high resolution. Credits: NASA/JPL
This cartoon shows how magnetic waves, called Alfvén S-waves, propagate outward from the base of black hole jets. The jet is a flow of charged particles, called a plasma, which is launched by a black hole. The jet has a helical magnetic field (yellow coil) permeating the plasma. The waves then travel along the jet, in the direction of the plasma flow, but at a velocity determined by both the jet’s magnetic properties and the plasma flow speed. The BL Lac jet examined in a new study is several light-years long, and the wave speed is about 98 percent the speed of light.
Fast-moving magnetic waves emanating from a distant supermassive black hole undulate like a whip whose handle is being shaken by a giant hand, according to a study using data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Very Long Baseline Array. Scientists used this instrument to explore the galaxy/black hole system known as BL Lacertae (BL Lac) in high resolution. Credits: NASA/JPL

Space news (astrophysics: supermassive black hole particle jets; Alfven S-waves) – 900 million light-years from Earth toward the constellation Lacerta, near the event horizon of the galaxy/monster supermassive black hole system called BL Lacertae (BL Lac) – 

The end of a whip moves faster than the speed of sound, creating a characteristic sound known to many humans familiar with this ancient weapon and all its variations. A sound that’s known for putting fear in the heart and sweat on the brow. But a whip trillions of miles long, moving at around 98 percent the speed of light and held in the gravitational grip of a supermassive black hole with a mass estimated to be around 200 million times that of Sol. A supermassive monster with a jet of charged particles with helical magnetic lines of force propagating from its base acts much like a gigantic, undulating cosmic whip held in its giant hand. 

In the artist’s rendition of quasar-like object BL Lac, above, magnetic waves called Alfven S-waves travel outward from the base of a jet launched from the supermassive black hole residing in its core. These waves were generated when magnetic field lines coming from the disk surrounding the black hole interacted with ions and twisted, coiled into a helical shape. Ions in the form of a particle jet ejected from the black hole at around 98 percent the speed of light with a helical magnetic field permeating through it like a titanic, crackling light-whip. A cosmic whip a few light-years in length, appearing to travel five times the speed of light, due to an optical illusion. Traveling at nearly the speed of light, slightly off the line of sight to Earth, our perception of how fast these Alfven S-waves are moving is thrown off as time slows down. Creating the visual illusion of movement at five times the speed of light. 

This artist's concept illustrates a supermassive black hole with millions to billions times the mass of our sun. Supermassive black holes are enormously dense objects buried at the hearts of galaxies. (Smaller black holes also exist throughout galaxies.) In this illustration, the supermassive black hole at the center is surrounded by matter flowing onto the black hole in what is termed an accretion disk. This disk forms as the dust and gas in the galaxy falls onto the hole, attracted by its gravity. Also shown is an outflowing jet of energetic particles, believed to be powered by the black hole's spin. The regions near black holes contain compact sources of high energy X-ray radiation thought, in some scenarios, to originate from the base of these jets. This high energy X-radiation lights up the disk, which reflects it, making the disk a source of X-rays. The reflected light enables astronomers to see how fast matter is swirling in the inner region of the disk, and ultimately to measure the black hole's spin rate. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
This artist’s concept illustrates a supermassive black hole with millions to billions times the mass of our sun. Supermassive black holes are enormously dense objects buried at the hearts of galaxies. (Smaller black holes also exist throughout galaxies.) In this illustration, the supermassive black hole at the center is surrounded by matter flowing onto the black hole in what is termed an accretion disk. This disk forms as the dust and gas in the galaxy falls onto the hole, attracted by its gravity.
Also shown is an outflowing jet of energetic particles, believed to be powered by the black hole’s spin. The regions near black holes contain compact sources of high energy X-ray radiation thought, in some scenarios, to originate from the base of these jets. This high energy X-radiation lights up the disk, which reflects it, making the disk a source of X-rays. The reflected light enables astronomers to see how fast matter is swirling in the inner region of the disk, and ultimately to measure the black hole’s spin rate.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

“The waves are excited by a shaking motion of the jet at its base,” said David Meier, a now-retired astrophysicist from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology, both in Pasadena. The team’s findings, detailed in the April 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal, mark the first time so-called Alfvén (pronounced Alf-vain) waves have been identified in a black hole system. 

Retired astrophysicist David Meier. Credits: NASA/JPL
Retired astrophysicist David Meier. Credits: NASA/JPL

A cosmic whip!

The quasar-like object called BL Lac is believed to be powered by matter falling into a supermassive black hole at the core of this very bright galaxy. Astronomers detected the particle jets associated with the supermassive black hole at its core swinging back and forth and bending as Alfven waves propagated along the magnetic field lines emanating from its disk. 

“Imagine running a water hose through a slinky that has been stretched taut,” said first author Marshall Cohen, an astronomer at Caltech. “A sideways disturbance at one end of the slinky will create a wave that travels to the other end, and if the slinky sways to and fro, the hose running through its center has no choice but to move with it.” 

“A similar thing is happening in BL Lac,” Cohen said. “The Alfvén waves are analogous to the propagating sideways motions of the slinky, and as the waves propagate along the magnetic field lines, they can cause the field lines — and the particle jets encompassed by the field lines — to move as well.” 

“It’s common for black hole particle jets to bend — and some even swing back and forth. But those movements typically take place on timescales of thousands or millions of years. What we see is happening on a timescale of weeks,” Cohen said. “We’re taking pictures once a month, and the position of the waves is different each month.” 

“By analyzing these waves, we are able to determine the internal properties of the jet, and this will help us ultimately understand how jets are produced by black holes,” said Meier. 

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Looming Cosmic Clouds Crisscross Giant Elliptical Galaxy Centaurus A

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Revealing the youthful glow of blue star clusters and a dusty core hidden from view 

Space news (astrophysics: giant elliptical galaxies; Centaurus A) – 11 million light-years from Earth toward the constellation Centaurus (NGC 5128) –  

The closest galaxy to Earth with an active nucleus containing a supermassive black hole that ejects jets of high-speed, extremely energetic particles into space, the giant elliptical island universe Centaurus A’s (NGC 5128) a nearby laboratory in which astronomers test present theories.  

The stunning Hubble Space Telescope image of Centaurus A (above) reveals a scene resembling cosmic clouds on a stormy day. Dark lanes of gas and dust crisscross its warped disk, revealing the youthful glow of blue star clusters, and red patches indicating shockwaves from a recent merger with a spiral galaxy. Shockwaves that cause hydrogen gas clouds to contract, starting the process of new star formation. 

cena_comp

The startling composite image of Centaurus A above combines X-ray data from NASA’s Chandra Observatory, optical data from the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Very Large Array. The core of NGC 5128 is a mess of gas, dust, and stars in visible light, but X-rays and radio waves reveal a stunning jet of high-speed, extremely energetic particles emanating from its active nucleus. 

CenAwide_colombari_1824
Elliptical galaxy Centaurus A is a peculiar galaxy with unusual and chaotic lanes of dust running across its center making it hard for astronomers to study its core. Also called NGC 5128, Centaurus A has red stars and a round shape characteristic of a giant elliptical galaxy, a type normally low in dark dust lanes. Image Credit & Copyright: Roberto Colombari

What could power such an event?

The power source for the relativistic jets observed streaming from the active galactic nucleus of Centaurus A’s a supermassive black hole with the estimated mass of over 10 million suns. Beaming out from the galactic nucleus toward the upper left, the high-speed jet travels nearly 13,000 light-years, while a shorter jet shoots from the core in the opposing direction. Astronomers think the source of the chaos in active galaxy Centaurus A’s the noted collision with a spiral galaxy about 100 million years ago. 

cenA_cfht_big
Thick lanes of dust obscure the center of Elliptical Galaxy Centaurus A from CFHT Credit & Copyright: Jean-Charles Cuillandre (CFHT) & Giovanni Anselmi (Coelum Astronomia), Hawaiian Starlight 

The amazing high-energy, extremely-fast, 30,000 light-year-long particle jet is the most striking feature in the false-color X-ray image taken by the Chandra Observatory. Beaming upward toward the left corner of the image, the relativistic jet seems to blast from the core of Centaurus A. A core containing an active, monster black hole pulling nearby matter into the center of its gravity well. An unknown realm mankind dreams about visiting one day. 

ssc2004-09a1_Ti
This image taken by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope shows in unprecedented detail the galaxy Centaurus A’s last big meal: a spiral galaxy seemingly twisted into a parallelogram-shaped structure of dust. Spitzer’s ability to see dust and also see through it allowed the telescope to peer into the center of Centaurus A and capture this galactic remnant as never before. Credit: NASA/Spitzer

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Astronomers Discover Disks Surrounding Supermassive Black Holes Emit X-ray Flares when Corona is Ejected

But why is the Corona ejected?

Astronomers believe high energy particles, the corona, of supermassive black holes can create the massive X-ray flares viewed. Image credit. Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Astronomers believe high energy particles, the corona, of supermassive black holes can create the massive X-ray flares viewed. Image credit. Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Space news (November 02, 2015) – 

Bizarre and mysterious stellar objects, studying black holes keeps astronomers up all night. One of the more puzzling mysteries of these unique objects are gigantic flares of X-rays (relativistic jets) detected erupting from disks of hot, glowing dust surrounding them. X-ray flares astronomers are presently studying in order to better understand these enigmatic, yet strangely attractive stellar objects.

Astronomers observing supermassive black holes using NASA’s Swift spacecraft and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) recently caught one in the middle of a gigantic X-ray flare. After analysis, they discovered this particular flare appeared to be a result of the Corona surrounding the supermassive black hole – region of highly energetic particlesbeing launched into space. A result making scientists and astronomers rethink their theories on how relativistic jets are created and sustained.

This result suggests to scientists that supermassive black holes emit X-ray flares when highly energized particles (Coronas) are launched away from the black hole. In this particular case, X-ray flares traveling at 20 percent of the speed of light, and directly pointing toward Earth. The ejection of the Corona caused the X-ray light emitted to brighten a little in an effect called relativistic Doppler boosting. This slightly brighter X-ray light has a different spectrum due to the motion of the Corona, which helped astronomers detect this unusual phenomenon leaving the disk of dust and gas surrounding this supermassive black hole.

This is the first time we have been able to link the launching of the Corona to a flare,” said Dan Wilkins of Saint Mary’s University in Halifax, Canada, lead author of a new paper on the results appearing in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. “This will help us understand how supermassive black holes power some of the brightest objects in the universe.

Astronomers currently propose two different scenarios for the source of coronas surrounding supermassive black holes. The “lamppost” scenario indicates coronas are analogous to light bulbs sitting above and below the supermassive black hole along its axis of rotation. This idea proposes coronas surrounding supermassive black holes are spread randomly as a large cloud or a “sandwich” that envelopes the disk of dust and material surrounding the black hole. Some astronomers think coronas surrounding supermassive black holes could alternate between both the lamppost and sandwich configurations.

The latest data seems to lean toward the “lamppost” scenario and gives us clues to how the coronas surrounding black holes move. More observations are needed to ascertain additional facts concerning this unusual phenomenon and how massive X-ray flares and gamma rays emitted by supermassive black holes are created.

Something very strange happened in 2007, when Mrk 335 faded by a factor of 30. What we have found is that it continues to erupt in flares but has not reached the brightness levels and stability seen before,” said Luigi Gallo, the principal investigator for the project at Saint Mary’s University. Another co-author, Dirk Grupe of Morehead State University in Kentucky, has been using Swift to regularly monitor the black hole since 2007.

The Corona gathered inward at first and then launched upwards like a jet,” said Wilkins. “We still don’t know how jets in black holes form, but it’s an exciting possibility that this black hole’s Corona was beginning to form the base of a jet before it collapsed.”

The nature of the energetic source of X-rays we call the Corona is mysterious, but now with the ability to see dramatic changes like this we are getting clues about its size and structure,” said Fiona Harrison, the principal investigator of NuSTAR at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who was not affiliated with the study.

Study continues

Astronomers will now continue their study of supermassive black holes in the cosmos in order to remove the veil of mystery surrounding the X-ray flares they emit and other bizarre mysteries surrounding these enigmatic stellar objects. In particular, they would love to discover the reasons for the ejection of Coronas surrounding black holes.

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Hubble Survey Links Galaxy Mergers with Presence of Active Galactic Nuclei

That are thought to be the result of huge volumes of heated matter circling around and being consumed by a supermassive black hole

Astrophysicists have wondered since discovering relativistic jets what could power such an awesome display of power. Space scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope just completed the largest survey ever conducted on this question. What they found might surprize you?
Astrophysicists have wondered since discovering relativistic jets what could power such an awesome display of power. Space scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope just completed the largest survey ever conducted on this question. What they found might surprise you?

Space news (August 12, 2015) – Astrophysics; studying galaxies with extremely luminous centers looking for clues to high-speed, radio-signal-emitting jets extending thousands of light-years into space

NASA space scientists working with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope think they have found a possible link between galaxy mergers and the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN).

With a
With a “panchromatic” grasp of light extending from the ultraviolet through the visible and into the infrared, is an extremely powerful imaging instrument, extending Hubble’s capabilities by seeing deeper into the universe. WFC3 is viewed as an important bridge to the infrared observations that will be carried out with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) following its launch in 2013.

“The galaxies that host these relativistic jets give out large amounts of radiation at radio wavelengths,” explains Marco.“By using Hubble’s WFC3 camera we found that almost all of the galaxies with large amounts of radio emission, implying the presence of jets, were associated with mergers. However, it was not only the galaxies containing jets that showed evidence of mergers!”

Active galactic nuclei refer to the luminous center of a small percentage of galaxies viewed during the human journey to the beginning of space and time. Luminous centers space scientists often detect emitting two high-speed jets of plasma in opposite directions at right angles to the disk of matter surrounding the supermassive black hole believed to exist near the center of these galaxies. Powerful, radio-signal-emitting jets astrophysicists call relativistic jets they think could be powered by huge volumes of heated matter circling around and eventually being consumed by the supermassive black hole. Heated matter astrophysicists think could have been provided by the chaos of a recent merger with another galaxy.

How did they conduct the study?

NASA astrophysicists studied a large selection of galaxies with extremely luminous centers looking for signs of a recent merger with another galaxy. Data from several different additional studies was used to enhance the data set. Space scientists in this study looked at five different types of galaxies; two types with relativistic jets, two with luminous cores but no jets, and a set of regular inactive galaxies. 

What did they find?

Galactic Wrecks Far from Earth: These images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope's ACS in 2004 and 2005 show four examples of interacting galaxies far away from Earth. The galaxies, beginning at far left, are shown at various stages of the merger process. The top row displays merging galaxies found in different regions of a large survey known as the AEGIS. More detailed views are in the bottom row of images. (Credit: NASA; ESA; J. Lotz, STScI; M. Davis, University of California, Berkeley; and A. Koekemoer, STScI)
Galactic Wrecks Far from Earth: These images from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope’s ACS in 2004 and 2005 show four examples of interacting galaxies far away from Earth. The galaxies, beginning at far left, are shown at various stages of the merger process. The top row displays merging galaxies found in different regions of a large survey known as the AEGIS. More detailed views are in the bottom row of images. (Credit: NASA; ESA; J. Lotz, STScI; M. Davis, University of California, Berkeley; and A. Koekemoer, STScI)

They found a large percentage of the galaxies viewed showed evidence of mergers with other galaxies, including all those with extremely luminous centers. They also found that a very small percentage of galaxies viewed formed AGNs with powerful radio emissions and even less relativistic jets extending thousands of light-years into space.

“We found that most merger events in themselves do not actually result in the creation of AGNs with powerful radio emission,” added co-author Roberto Gilli from Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy. “About 40% of the other galaxies we looked at had also experienced a merger and yet had failed to produce the spectacular radio emissions and jets of their counterparts.”

What’s next?

Astrophysicists looking at the data provided through this survey of galaxies with AGNs believe it could be necessary for galaxies to merge to produce a host supermassive black hole with relativistic jets. They also think additional parameters need to exist for the merger to result in this spectacular and awe-inspiring sight. Possibly the result of two black holes of similar mass merging could power these high-speed jets viewed during the human journey to the beginning of space and time as excess energy is extracted from the black hole’s rotational energy is added to the mix.

“There are two ways in which mergers are likely to affect the central black hole. The first would be an increase in the amount of gas being driven towards the galaxy’s centre, adding mass to both the black hole and the disc of matter around it,” explains Colin Norman, co-author of the paper. “But this process should affect black holes in all merging galaxies, and yet not all merging galaxies with black holes end up with jets, so it is not enough to explain how these jets come about. The other possibility is that a merger between two massive galaxies causes two black holes of a similar mass to also merge. It could be that a particular breed of merger between two black holes produces a single spinning supermassive black hole, accounting for the production of jets.”

What’s next?

Astrophysicists and space scientists will now use both the Hubble Space Telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to expand the search for additional galaxies with extremely luminous centers. This will enhance the survey and provide more data on additional parameters to help shed light on galaxies with AGNs. For now, we can only say it appears galaxies viewed exhibiting relativistic jets have merged with other galaxies.

Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to
Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA)

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