In order to better understand intricate operations and detailed planning needed to capture multi-ton boulder from asteroid surface
Space news (Asteroid Redirect Mission: testing of prototype of robotic capture module system) – The Robotic Operations Center of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center –
Inside the Robotic Operations Center (ROC) of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center engineers are at work preparing the robotic section of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The most recent work involved testing a prototype of the asteroid capture system with a mock boulderbuilt by NASA and students from West Virginia University. This work will help engineers learn more about the intricate operations needed to capture a multi-ton boulder from the surface of an asteroid. The robotic section of ARM is targeted for a 2021 launch window.
The capability built into the ROC allows engineers to create a simulation of the capture of a boulder from the surface of an asteroid. Here they can also simulate servicing of the satellite, fine tuning of systems and controllers, and even optimize all performance factors for future repairs and refueling. An important capabilitywhen building spacecraft worth hundreds of millions of dollars and even more. One that saves money and time.
The report reflects the findings of a two-month study conducted by members of the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG). It explains many of ARM’s potential contributions to the future of the human journey to the beginning of space and time.
“This report is an important step in identifying ways that ARM will be more scientifically relevant as we continue mission formulation for the robotic and the crew segments,” said Gates. “We’re currently in the process of selecting hosted instruments and payloads for the robotic segment, and hope to receive an updated analysis from the SBAG after we announce those selections in spring 2017.”
100,000 stars bonded by gravity in a spherical shape hundreds of light-years across
Space news (February 19, 2016) – 20,000 light-years away in the constellation of Scorpius (The Scorpion) –
Astronomers using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 onboard NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope recently took this image of globular cluster Terzan 1. Just one of around 150 globular clusters that are part of the Milky Way, the red stars in this image are some of the oldest stars in our galaxy.
Astrophysicists study globular clusters in order to learn more about the early stages of the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. It also allows them to understand more about the formation and evolution of galaxies around the cosmos in general.
Astronomers also detect X-ray sources in Terzan 1, they believe emanate from binary star systems containing a dense neutron star and a normal star. They are currently studying these sources to understand and learn more about X-ray emissions and binary star systems.
Take the amazing journey of the Hubble Space Telescope here.
Learn more about the Milky Way, the galaxy you live in, here.
Learn more about globular clusters here.
Read about the things astronomers have discovered about binary star systems here.
In the embers of once vibrant white dwarf stars in the central bulge of the galaxy
Space news (December 08, 2015) – Looking through a cosmic keyhole 26,000 light-years away in Sagittarius –
Astronomers trying to understand the formation and evolution of the Milky Way by studying the first stars to be born in the galaxy have a problem. The stars within the central bulge of the galaxy formed first according to stellar theory. Unfortunately, the light from these suns is blocked by massive clouds of gas and dust, which makes studying their role in the formation and evolution of the Milky Way difficult.
In order to view the central bulge of the galaxy, astronomers looked through a small keyhole in the sky, called the Sagittarius Window. Making it possible to study the formation and evolution of the Milky Way and galaxies as a whole by comparison. A view giving us a look into the very heart of the galaxy and the blueprints nature uses to construct these island universes.
Current astronomical theory believes the central bulge of the Milky Way grew first, followed by the relatively quick birth of the stars making up the rest of the galaxy. Peering deep into the heart of the central bulge, astronomers have discovered a family of 70 ancient white dwarf stars, they believe are the smoldering remnants of once-vibrant suns that inhabited the core long ago. Ancient stars scientists are studying to uncover clues to the processes that formed the Milky Way and by relation the family of galaxies in the cosmos. Marking the deepest, most detailed archeological study of the central bulge of the Milky Way and by extension its formation and evolution.
These ancient white dwarf stars hold the keys to opening the door to better understanding the history of the Milky Way. To gaining knowledge and facts concerning 12 billion-year-old suns that existed when the galaxy was young. Knowledge and facts giving astronomers clues to the early years and evolution of the Milky Way and the billions of island universes in the cosmos.
“It is important to observe the Milky Way’s bulge because it is the only bulge we can study in detail,” explained Annalisa Calamida of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, the science paper’s lead author. “You can see bulges in distant galaxies, but you cannot resolve the very faint stars, such as the white dwarfs. The Milky Way’s bulge includes almost a quarter of the galaxy’s stellar mass. Characterizing the properties of the bulge stars can then provide important information to understanding the formation of the entire Milky Way galaxy and that of similar, more distant galaxies.”
“The Hubble survey also found slightly more low-mass stars in the bulge, compared to those in the galaxy’s disk population. This result suggests that the environment in the bulge may have been different than the one in the disk, resulting in a different star-formation mechanism,” Calamida said.
Astronomers have only looked at about 70 of the hottest white dwarfs Hubble can pick out of at least 70 thousand stars in the small area of the bulge of the Milky Way they looked at. White dwarf stars detected by making extremely precise measurements of the motion of over 240,000 stars they detected over a decade of viewing as part of the Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search (SWEEPS). Precise measurements astronomers used to determine which stars are disk stars or suns inhabiting the bulge of our galaxy. Stars that inhabit the bulge move at a different rate than suns in the disk of the galaxy as compared to our Sun. Extremely hot white dwarfs are also slightly bluer relative to stars like our own sun and they become fainter and cooler as they age. Facts that allowed Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys to pick out 70 of the brightest white dwarf stars inhabiting the bulge of the Milky Way.
“Comparing the positions of the stars from now and 10 years ago we were able to measure accurate motions of the stars,” said Kailash Sahu of STScI, and the study’s leader. “The motions allowed us to tell if they were disk stars, bulge stars, or halo stars.”
“These 70 white dwarfs represent the peak of the iceberg,” Sahu said. “We estimate that the total number of white dwarfs is about 100,000 in this tiny Hubble view of the bulge. Future telescopes such as NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope will allow us to count almost all of the stars in the bulge down to the faintest ones, which today’s telescopes, even Hubble, cannot see.”
The team’s going back to work
This team of intrepid astronomers and scientists now plan to increase the sample size of the white dwarfs currently being studied. This will be done by analyzing additional parts of the SWEEPS field of study, which they hope to use to get more precise measurements of the exact age of the bulge of the Milky Way. They’ll also take a look at the possibility the star formation processes used to create the bulge billions of years ago, could be slightly different than current star formation processes at work in the younger disk of the galaxy.
You can learn more about the Hubble Space Telescope here.
By passing historic legislation H.R. 2262 into law
Space news (November 17, 2015) – U.S. House of Congress –
When President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act into law on May 20, 1862, this spurred growth in the search for gold and timber to fuel the expanding economy of the nation and opened up new frontiers for continued growth and prosperity for all.
Now, all Americans can take part in the future asteroid bonanza on the space frontier in the decades ahead.
On November 10, 2015, U.S. Congress passed into law bill H.R. 2262, legislation recognizing the right of Americans to own the resources contained within asteroids they claim as property.
“We are proud to have the support of Congress. Throughout history, governments have spurred growth in new frontiers by instituting sensible legislation. Long ago, The Homestead Act of 1862 advocated for the search for gold and timber, and today, H.R. 2262 fuels a new economy that will open many avenues for the continual growth and prosperity of humanity. This off-planet economy will forever change our lives for the better here on Earth,” said Chris Lewicki, President, and Chief Engineer, Planetary Resources, Inc.
“Planetary Resources is grateful for the leadership shown by Congress in crafting this legislation and looks forward to President Obama signing the language into law. We applaud the members of Congress who have led this effort and actively sought stakeholder input to ensure a vibrant economy and prosperous way of life now and for centuries to come. Patty Murray (D-WA), Kevin McCarthy (R-CA), Lamar Smith (R-TX), Bill Posey (R-FL) and Derek Kilmer (D-WA) have been unwavering in their support and leadership for the growth of the U.S. economy into the Solar System. Their forward-looking stance and active role in enabling the development of an economically and strategically valuable new marketplace will ensure our country’s continued leadership in space,” said Peter Marquez, Vice President of Global Engagement, Planetary Resources, Inc.
In the words of Senator Murray, “I am glad that we’ve taken this important step forward to update our federal policies to make sure they work for innovative businesses creating jobs in Washington state. Washington state leads in so many ways, and I’m proud that local businesses are once again at the forefront of new industries that will help our economy continue to grow.”
Congressman Posey said, “This bipartisan, bicameral legislation is a landmark for American leadership in space exploration. Recognizing basic legal protections in space will help pave the way for exciting future commercial space endeavors. Asteroids and other objects in space are excellent potential sources of rare minerals and other resources that can be used to manufacture a wide range of products here on Earth and to support future space exploration missions. Americans willing to invest in space mining operations need legal certainty that they can keep the fruits of their labor, and this bill provides that certainty.”
Congressman Kilmer said, “The commercial space industry in Washington state is leading the way in developing the cutting edge technology necessary to support human space exploration. The U. S. Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act will give these ventures the framework they need to continue to innovate and to keep the United States at the head of this growing, global industry. I congratulate the Senate for taking this step, and I look forward to the House quickly sending this bill to President Obama’s desk.”
Eric Anderson, Co-Founder, and Co-Chairman, Planetary Resources, Inc., said, “Many years from now, we will view this pivotal moment in time as a major step toward humanity becoming a multi-planetary species. This legislation establishes the same supportive framework that created the great economies of history, and it will foster the sustained development of space.”
Time to cash in those old stocks and bonds from the bygone era of Earth exploitation. The future is asteroids!
Private firms around the United States and the world are currently making plans to take part in the future space bonanza. Can you afford to sit idly on the sidelines, while the future and opportunity pass you by?
Take action! Join Planetary Resources or one of the few private firms planning on mining an asteroid in the decades ahead.
Get your little piece of the future, in the form of a portion of the resources and monetary rewards of being part of the coming space bonanza.
People are currently getting in on the ground floor of this adventure and opportunity to take part in the future of mankind.
The future is before us! Waiting to greet us into a sustainable way of living among the stars.
Join the human journey to the beginning of space and time by investing in the future of mankind.
Two white dwarfs shed outer layers of mass to form winding blue clouds of hot gas
Space news (October 16, 2015) – light-years away in the southern constellation Norma –
Firstdiscovered during modern times by noted astronomer Donald Menzel in 1922, planetary nebula PK 329-02.2 or Menzel 2 (Mz 2), is composed of a central star and companion suncocooned in stunning, hot clouds of glowing gas ejected in complex shapes that will fade into the cosmos over the next few thousands of years.
Astrophysicists believe the star at the upper right of the two centralstars shining brightly in this Hubble image is the main star of planetary nebula PK 329-02.2. The star just to the lower left of this central star astronomers believe is the companion sun, which is gravitationally tied to the main star.
Over tens of thousands of years, this pair of stars is expected to be cocooned in stunning clouds of hot, glowing gas. Swirling clouds forming a goodbye wave as the main star enters the final stages of its life cycle and starts to enjoy retirement as a white dwarf star.
You can discover more about the journey of the Hubble Space Telescope here.
One of the largestglobular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Space news (September 20, 2015) – 160,000 light-years from Earth toward the constellation Dorado –
Held in the grip of its own gravity, globular cluster NGC 1783 orbits the Milky Way as part of the Large Magellanic Cloud, a region of space filled with star-forming regions like the Tarantula Nebula and LHA 120-N 11.
Lying in the southern hemisphere constellation Dorado, the typical symmetrical form and dense collection of suns near the center of NGC 1783 was first recorded by John Herschel around 1835.
Astrophysicists studied the color and brightness of individual suns within globular cluster NGC 1783 to estimate its age and history of star formation. Measurements indicate that despite its typical distribution of stars and shape this larger star cluster is only about 1.5 billion years old and during its lifespan has undergone at least two-star forming periods separated by 50 to 100 million years. Typically globular clusters viewed are several billion years of age.
The highs and lows of star formation in a globular cluster gives astrophysicists an indication of the density of gas available for new stars to form during its life span. During periods when dense gas is available for star formation, the most massive stars explode as supernovae, blowing away the gas needed for new stars to form. The reservoir of gas for new star formation is then replenished by less massive stars which live longer and die less violently. Once the reservoir of gas flows to denser, central regions of a star cluster, the second phase of star formation takes place, and a massive star with a short life spans once again blow off the gas. Astrophysicists think this cycle continues until the gas leftover can no longer sustain the formation of new stars.
Just add water, gasses, and simple organic molecules
Space news (July 27, 2015) – the search for life beyond Earth – a simple recipe for extraterrestrial life –
NASA scientists studying the origins of organic compounds important to the development of life on Earth think they’re on the trail of a cosmic “Crucible of the Building Blocks of Life”. Recent experiments conducted by astrobiologists working at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland indicate asteroids and meteorites could have been the source of complex organic compounds essential to the evolution of life on Earth. Essential organic compounds they have been able to reproduce in laboratory experiments from simpler organic compounds, water, and gasses in simulations of the space environments of meteorites and asteroids.
“We found that the types of organic compounds in our laboratory-produced ices match very well to what is found in meteorites,” said Karen Smith of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “This result suggests that these important organic compounds in meteorites may have originated from simple molecular ices in space. This type of chemistry may also be relevant for comets, which contain large amounts of water and carbon dioxide ices. These experiments show that vitamin B3 and other complex organic compounds could be made in space and it is plausible that meteorite and comet impacts could have added an extraterrestrial component to the supply of vitamin B3 on ancient Earth.”
“This work is part of a broad research program in the field of Astrobiology at NASA Goddard. We are working to understand the origins of biologically important molecules and how they came to exist throughout the Solar System and on Earth. The experiments performed in our laboratory demonstrate an important possible connection between the complex organic molecules formed in cold interstellar space and those we find in meteorites.”
The Crucible of the Building Blocks of Life
Deep within immense clouds of gas and dust created by exploding stars (supernovae) and the winds of red giant stars coming to the end of their days are countless dust grains. Many of these dust grains will end up part of asteroids and meteorites like the millions of bodies in the Main Asteroid Belt, Kuiper Belt, and Oort Cloud. Asteroids and meteorites that bombarded the Earth from space during the formation of the planets and Solar System.
NASA space scientists were able to reproduce a “Crucible of the Building Blocks of Life” using an aluminum plate cooled to minus 423 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 253 Celsius) as the cold surface of an interstellar dust grain carried by an asteroid or meteorite heading to Earth 4.5 billion years ago. The experiments were conducted in a vacuum chamber used to replicate conditions in space to which they added gasses containing water, carbon dioxide, and the simple organic compound pyridine. Bombarding the cold surface with high energy protons from a particle accelerator to simulate cosmic radiation and other radiation found in space produced more complex organic compounds like vitamin B3.
To learn more about the European Space Agency and its work with the Rosetta mission go here.
To learn more about NASA’s space mission and the search for life beyond Earth visit here.
Learn more about the Goddard Space Flight Center here.