Planetary Scientists Suggest Three Landing Sites for Mars 2020

One of the oldest regions of the Red Planet discovered, an ancient Martian lake, or the site of an ancient hot spring first explored by NASA’s Spirit rover

mars2020_landingsites_gusevjezerosyrtis
NASA’s Mars 2020 rover’s expected to land at one of the three sites noted on this image of the Red Planet. Credits: NASA

Space news (The Journey to Mars: Mars 2020; possible landing sites) – Northeast Syrtis: Jerero crater; or Columbia Hills, on the Red Planet –

Planetary scientists and other scientists attending the third landing site workshop hosted by NASA in order to determine the best place for its Mars 2020 rover to land recommend three places. NASA’s been using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to search for suitable sites since about 2006 and to help in the identification, study, and verification of possible future landing sites for coming manned missions during most recent history. Data and observations provided by the MRO also helped participants narrow down the choices to three during the workshop.

golombek
Dr. Matt Golombek, just one of the rocket geniuses working at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Credits: NASA/JPL

“From the point of view of evaluating potential landing sites, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is the perfect spacecraft for getting all the information needed,” said the workshop’s co-chair, Matt Golombek of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. “You just can’t overstate the importance of MRO for landing-site selection.”

people-8
Leslie Tamppari, another genius working at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Credits: NASA/JPL

“Missions on the surface of Mars give you the close-up view, but what you see depends on where you land. MRO searches the globe for the best sites,” said MRO Deputy Project Scientist Leslie Tamppari of JPL.

people-96
NASA’s Jet Propulsion is famous for employing the experience, skills, and knowledge of geniuses, but this is getting to be ridiculous. Credits: NASA/JPL

“Whether it is looking at the surface, the subsurface or the atmosphere of the planet, MRO has viewed Mars from orbit with unprecedented spatial resolution, and that produces huge volumes of data,” said MRO Project Scientist Rich Zurek of JPL.“These data are a treasure trove for the whole Mars scientific community to study as we seek to answer a broad range of questions about the evolving habitability, geology, and climate of Mars.”

The Journey to the Red Planet

The human journey to the beginning of space and time will be making a stop on Mars sometime in the 2030s if everything goes as planned with NASA’s Journey to Mars. Mars 2020 is expected to launch aboard the Atlas V 541 rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida around July 2020. After a journey of millions of miles across the solar system to the Red Planet, the Mars 2020 rover will land at one of three possible sites.

Northeast Syrtis

mro_hirise_syrtis_major_esp_015942_1980-br2
NASA’s Mars 2020 rover could be landing here to look for evidence one-celled life flourished in water accumulated on the surface of the Red Planet. Credits: NASA/MRO/HIRISE

Images of the first possible landing site in the Northeast part of Syrtis Major show Early Noachian bedrock planetary scientists would like to have a closer look at for signs of possible life. An excellent place for study and exploration of the past of the Red Planet, scientists are currently studying whether it’s safe for Mars 2020 to land. There could be too many boulders or even steep slopes unidentified in the initial analysis of images of this region making landing problematic at best. There’s also always the possibility of something we haven’t thought of. If the site is safe, it will be considered for the final choice, and possibly even for the rovers planned by Europe and NASA sometime around 2018.

This part of the Red Planet was once warmed by volcanoes, so planetary scientists want to look for ancient hot springs and even surface ice melt where liquid water could have flowed. Liquid water’s one of the catalysts-of-life planetary scientists look for in the search for extraterrestrial life. The layered terrain of Northeast Syrtis could hold a record of ancient simple life forms that existed on Mars during its early history. At the very least it should tell us more about interactions between water and minerals over successive parts of the Red Planet when it was young. This site we should definitely take a look at.

Jezero Crater

080716_jezerocrater_hr-br2
NASA scientists plan on using instruments on the Mars 2020 rover to look into the possibility simple, one-celled life could have evolved and flourished in the water of a lake they think existed on the surface of the Red Planet in this region. Credits: NASA/MRO/HIRISE

Rewind time 3.5 billion years in Jezero crater, to when river channels spilled over the crater wall and formed a lake. Planetary scientists see evidence water from this lake carried clay minerals from the lake bed after this body of water dried up. Scientists want to explore the crater for signs microbial life once lived here during events such as this when Jezero crater was a little wetter. For the remains of ancient life in the lakebed sediments.

Columbia Hills, Mars

mars_spirit_rover_gusev_crater_longhorn_rock_pia06770-br2
Scientists think simple, one-celled life could have developed and flourished in the waters of a shallow lake they believe formed here billions of years ago. Credits: NASA/MRO/HIRISE

After additional study planetary scientists and geochemists agree mineral springs once bubbled up from the rocks of Columbia Hills in Gusev crater on the Red Planet. Originally, the Spirit rover found no clear signs water flowed over or existed in the rocks of this region of Mars, but the discovery hot springs once existed here has scientists thinking a shallow lake may have once formed for a time. Warm, inviting waters microbial life could have evolved in, exobiologists are keen to examine soils and lakebed sediments of Gusev crater for their remains.

The Final Landing Site of the Mars 2020 rover

 

mars2020_3_landing_sites_slideshow_shareable
NASA’s shortlisted the possible landing sites to the three regions seen in the slideshow above. Credits: NASA/MRO/HIRISE

 

Possible landing sites of NASA’s Mars 2020 rover may change as the mission goes forward, the science mission and even engineering considerations of achieving their goals could change as they learn more. Ultimately, NASA will decide on a landing site with geology indicating a wetter past that also meets all criteria. Stay tuned to the human journey to the beginning of space and time during the months and years ahead to learn more. 

Learn about NASA’s desire to find private firms and individuals to form space technology partnerships with.

Read and learn about the plasma jets of active supermassive black holes.

Help NASA classify young star systems by becoming a Disk Detective.

Learn more about NASA’s Journey to Mars.

Learn more about NASA’s contributions to the human journey to the beginning of space and time here.

Discover the Mars 2020 rover.

Learn more about the discoveries of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Discover the Spirit rover.

Advertisements

NASA’s Successor to Curiosity Rover Working Toward Summer Launch in 2020

To investigate Martian rocks for evidence of past life in advance of sending humans to work and live on the Red Planet

An artist concept image of where seven carefully-selected instruments will be located on NASA’s Mars 2020 rover. The instruments will conduct unprecedented science and exploration technology investigations on the Red Planet as never before. IMAGE CREDIT: NASA
An artist concept image of where seven carefully-selected instruments will be located on NASA’s Mars 2020 rover. The instruments will conduct unprecedented science and exploration technology investigations on the Red Planet as never before.
IMAGE CREDIT: NASA

Space news (missions to Mars: successor to Curiosity rover; Mars 2020 rover) – NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California –

Planning for NASA's 2020 Mars rover envisions a basic structure that capitalizes on the design and engineering work done for the NASA rover Curiosity, which landed on Mars in 2012, but with new science instruments selected through competition for accomplishing different science objectives. Mars 2020 is a mission concept that NASA announced in late 2012 to re-use the basic engineering of Mars Science Laboratory to send a different rover to Mars, with new objectives and instruments, launching in 2020. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages NASA's Mars Exploration Program for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Planning for NASA’s 2020 Mars rover envisions a basic structure that capitalizes on the design and engineering work done for the NASA rover Curiosity, which landed on Mars in 2012, but with new science instruments selected through competition for accomplishing different science objectives. Mars 2020 is a mission concept that NASA announced in late 2012 to re-use the basic engineering of Mars Science Laboratory to send a different rover to Mars, with new objectives and instruments, launching in 2020. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages NASA’s Mars Exploration Program for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA managers are looking forward to shifting gears on the Mars rover program in the 2020s. NASA’s Mars 2020 rover’s expected to arrive at the Red Planet around February 2021, carrying a science instrument package designed to build upon the success of NASA’s Mars Curiosity rover. It will investigate regions of the planet astrobiologists think were once favorable to microbial life, by collecting soil and rock samples, and then leaving them on the surface for a future Mars mission to collect for the possible return to Earth.

Terrain-Relative Navigation helps us land safely on Mars - especially when the land below is full of hazards like steep slopes and large rocks!
Terrain-Relative Navigation helps us land safely on Mars – especially when the land below is full of hazards like steep slopes and large rocks! The Mars 2020 spacecraft follows an entry, descent, landing process similar to that used in landing the Mars rover, Curiosity. It also has major new technologies that improve entry, descent, and landing: Range Trigger, Terrain-Relative Navigation, MEDLI and its EDL caneras and microphone. Credits: NASA/JPL

“The Mars 2020 rover is the first step in a potential multi-mission campaign to return carefully selected and sealed samples of Martian rocks and soil to Earth,” said Geoffrey Yoder, acting associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. “This mission marks a significant milestone in NASA’s Journey to Mars, to determine whether life has ever existed on Mars, and to advance our goal of sending humans to the Red Planet.”

The surface operations phase is the time when the rover conducts its scientific studies on Mars. After landing safely, Mars 2020 has a primary mission span of at least one Martian year (687 Earth days). The Mars 2020 rover uses a depot caching strategy for its exploration of Mars.
The surface operations phase is the time when the rover conducts its scientific studies on Mars. After landing safely, Mars 2020 has a primary mission span of at least one Martian year (687 Earth days).
The Mars 2020 rover uses a depot caching strategy for its exploration of Mars. Credits: NASA/JPL

NASA engineers, scientists and mission planners are ready to begin final design and construction of the next Mars rover. In the end, Mars 2020 will look like its six-wheeled, one-ton predecessor, Curiosity, but with a science instrument package designed to begin a new phase of exploration of the surface of Mars. It will begin exploring specifically selected regions of the planet for signs of life and the resources needed for future colonists to survive. Using two science instruments mounted on the rover’s robotic arm and two instruments on the mast, NASA’s Mars 2020 rover’s expected to show us new things about the Red Planet.

Current plans call for the Mars 2020 rover to use an upgraded version of the same sky crane landing system used by Curiosity. Engineers and designers have added a few improvements to the system opening up more potential landing sites on Mars with this edition. Giving mission planners more options to explore the Red Planet to a greater degree and hopefully provide a few more answers to the questions we have all been asking ourselves about Mars. 

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry Descent & Landing (EDL) activities in SFOF MSA Fishbowl. Pre-Landing. Date: 05 August/2012 Photographer: T. Wynne
Allen Chen, Mars 2020 entry, descent, and landing lead at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory conducting Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry Descent & Landing (EDL) activities in SFOF MSA Fishbowl. Pre-Landing. 
Date: 05 August/2012
Photographer: T. Wynne

“By adding what’s known as range trigger, we can specify where we want the parachute to open, not just at what velocity we want it to open,” said Allen Chen, Mars 2020 entry, descent and landing lead at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. “That shrinks our landing area by nearly half.”

NASA is developing the capabilities needed to send humans to an asteroid by 2025 and Mars in the 2030s – goals outlined in the bipartisan NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and in the U.S. National Space Policy, also issued in 2010.
NASA is developing the capabilities needed to send humans to an asteroid by 2025 and Mars in the 2030s – goals outlined in the bipartisan NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and in the U.S. National Space Policy, also issued in 2010. Credits: NASA/JPL

Engineers and designers have also added a suite of cameras and a microphone providing data onboard computers will analysis during descent and landing of the rover. This will help the spacecraft land in a safe zone and capture the sounds and imagery of the entry, descent, and landing as never before. We expect this data to eventually make for a thrilling video and improve the chances of future Mars missions. 

“As it is descending, the spacecraft can tell whether it is headed for one of the unsafe zones and divert to safe ground nearby,” said Chen. “With this capability, we can now consider landing areas with unsafe zones that previously would have disqualified the whole area. Also, we can land closer to a specific science destination, for less driving after landing.”

“Nobody has ever seen what a parachute looks like as it is opening in the Martian atmosphere,” said JPL’s David Gruel, assistant flight system manager for the Mars 2020 mission. “So this will provide valuable engineering information.”

“This will be a great opportunity for the public to hear the sounds of Mars for the first time, and it could also provide useful engineering information,” said Mars 2020 Deputy Project Manager Matt Wallace of JPL.

Mars 2020 rover goes forward

As the optimist said, “So far, so good.” NASA has completed stage three of a four-stage approval process needed for the Mars 2020 rover to go for launch. Now engineers and designers get to work assembling the final systems of NASA’s next Mars rover. Fortunately, they have already done a lot of the work during the building of Curiosity, and even have some spare parts and hardware that should work just fine laying around somewhere in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 

“Since Mars 2020 is leveraging the design and some spare hardware from Curiosity, a significant amount of the mission’s heritage components have already been built during Phases A and B,” said George Tahu, Mars 2020 program executive at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “With the KDP to enter Phase C completed, the project is proceeding with final design and construction of the new systems, as well as the rest of the heritage elements for the mission.”

Read and learn about the latest method astrophysicists have developed to help determine distances to objects on the other side of the Milky Way.

Learn more about the titanic, massive plasma jets astronomers have detected emanating from near some supermassive black holes.

Read about some of China’s contributions to the human journey to the beginning of space and time.

Read more about NASA’s Mars 2020 rover.

Join NASA’s journey to the beginning of space and time here.

Follow NASA’s Curiosity rover as it explores the surface of Mars.

Learn what NASA’s Spirit and Opportunity rovers have told us about the Red Planet here.

Learn more about NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

 

NASA Selects US Aerospace Firms to Study Mars Orbiter Concepts

5 US companies to conduct concept studies for support missions to colonize Mars 

mars_2
NASA has selected 5 major US aerospace firms to help develop and lead the way to Mars during the next phase of mankind’s journey to the stars. Credits: NASA/journeytomars

Space news (Journey to Mars: Mars Orbiter Mission; support mission concept studies) – NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California – 

NASA’s plans to send astronauts to explore and one day live on Mars turned a page today with the announcement of the selection of five US aerospace firms to study possible mission concepts. The Boeing Company, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Orbital ATK, and Space Systems will each conduct four months of research on ways a new Mars orbiter mission would benefit communications, imaging ability, and operational capabilities of future manned missions to the Red Planet. 

Mars colonists will need to find local sources of water in order to survive on the Red Planet. The canyon system seen here is Valles Marineris, one of the largest found in the solar system, and a possible source of future water for any mission to Mars. Credits: NASA/JPL
Mars colonists will need to find local sources of water in order to survive on the Red Planet. The canyon system seen here is Valles Marineris, one of the largest found in the solar system, and a possible source of future water for any mission to Mars. Blue dots on this map indicate sites of recurring slope lineae (RSL) in part of the Valles Marineris canyon network on Mars. RSL are seasonal dark streaks regarded as the strongest evidence for the possibility of liquid water on the surface of modern Mars. The area mapped here has the highest density of known RSL on the Red Planet. Credits: NASA/JPL

“We’re excited to continue planning for the next decade of Mars exploration,” said Geoffrey Yoder, acting associate administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. 

Mars colonists will have to deal with severe winds, extreme dust storms, and other environmental phenomena that will make adapting to life on the Red Planet an adventure unlike any undertaken by mankind. Credits: NASA/JPL/MRO
Mars colonists will have to deal with severe winds, extreme dust storms, and other environmental phenomena that will make adapting to life on the Red Planet an adventure unlike any undertaken by mankind. Miniature wind vortices called Martian dust devils will be a common occurrence. Spinning columns of rising air heated by the warm surface of Mars, lasting just a few minutes, dust devils full of loose red-colored dust abound. Credits: NASA/JPL/MRO

Partners in making history

NASA is actively seeking partnerships in their desire to send manned missions to Mars as early as the 2030s. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group published a report a few months ago on the science objectives proposed for the manned Journey to Mars missions by the scientific community and their feasibility. People and firms interested in contributing to the Journey to Mars should contact NASA to see how they can take part. 

NASA's InSight Mars lander After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload.
NASA has suspended the 2016 launch of InSight Mars lander following the unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science load. Expectations are for the InSight Mars lander to help lead the way for future missions and colonists heading to the Red Planet. Credits: NASA/JPL

NASA’s Journey to Mars is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California under the direction of the agency’s Mars Exploration Program. This is a very ambitious space program expected to lead the way for mankind to one day travel to Mars and take steps to stay forever. Presently, it has two robotic rovers and three orbiting spacecraft exploring the Red Planet and future plans include the launch of the InSight lander in 2018 and the Mars 2020 rover, which is currently in development. 

mars_crater_wet_dry
This artist’s concept depicts the early Martian environment (left) as humans would like to see it– containing liquid water and a thicker atmosphere – versus the cold, dry, harsh environment seen at Mars now (right). NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution is in orbit above the Red Planet studying its upper atmosphere, ionosphere, interactions with the sun and solar wind and habitability for future colonists. Credits: NASA/JPL

Take the space journey of NASA

Explore the Jet Propulsion Laboratory here

Learn more about NASA’s Journey to Mars Program

Read and learn about NASA’s InSight lander mission here

Learn more about the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group

Read and learn about the Mars 2020 rover here

Learn more about the Mars Orbiter Mission

Learn more about NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington here

Read and learn about magnetic lines of force emanating from supermassive black holes.

Learn more about the space collaboration between Japan and NASA and Astro-D, their fourth mission together to discover the x-ray universe above us

Read and learn about the Kepler Space Telescope’s recent observation of a supernova shockwave in visible light for the first time.