Planetary Nebula Menzel 2 in Final Stages of Life Cycle

Two white dwarfs shed outer layers of mass to form winding blue clouds of hot gas

This planetary nebula is called PK 329-02.2 and is located in the constellation of Norma in the southern sky. It is also sometimes referred to as Menzel 2, or Mz 2, named after the astronomer Donald Menzel who discovered the nebula in 1922. When stars that are around the mass of the Sun reach their final stages of life, they shed their outer layers into space, which appear as glowing clouds of gas called planetary nebulae. The ejection of mass in stellar burnout is irregular and not symmetrical, so that planetary nebulae can have very complex shapes. In the case of Menzel 2 the nebula forms a winding blue cloud that perfectly aligns with two stars at its centre. In 1999 astronomers discovered that the star at the upper right is in fact the central star of the nebula, and the star to the lower left is probably a true physical companion of the central star. For tens of thousands of years the stellar core will be cocooned in spectacular clouds of gas and then, over a period of a few thousand years, the gas will fade away into the depths of the Universe. The curving structure of Menzel 2 resembles a last goodbye before the star reaches its final stage of retirement as a white dwarf. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble's Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Serge Meunier.
This planetary nebula is called PK 329-02.2 and is located in the constellation of Norma in the southern sky.

Space news (October 16, 2015) – light-years away in the southern constellation Norma –

First discovered during modern times by noted astronomer Donald Menzel in 1922, planetary nebula PK 329-02.2 or Menzel 2 (Mz 2), is composed of a central star and companion sun cocooned in stunning, hot clouds of glowing gas ejected in complex shapes that will fade into the cosmos over the next few thousands of years.

Astrophysicists believe the star at the upper right of the two central stars shining brightly in this Hubble image is the main star of planetary nebula PK 329-02.2. The star just to the lower left of this central star astronomers believe is the companion sun, which is gravitationally tied to the main star.

Over tens of thousands of years, this pair of stars is expected to be cocooned in stunning clouds of hot, glowing gas. Swirling clouds forming a goodbye wave as the main star enters the final stages of its life cycle and starts to enjoy retirement as a white dwarf star

You can discover more about the journey of the Hubble Space Telescope here.

Learn more about planetary nebula here.

Take part in NASA’s mission to the stars here.

Learn why planetary scientists think they have found absolute evidence for the presence of water on Saturn’s moon Enceladus.

Read about the Twin Jet Nebula and its cosmic wings.

Learn more about the plans of private firm Planetary Resources Inc to mine as asteroid in the near future and how to take part in the journey.

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Pulsar in Double Star System PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 Punches Opening in Gas Disk Surrounding Companion Star

Launching an accelerating fragment of the thin disk at 7 percent of the speed of light 

This trio of images contains evidence from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory that a clump of stellar material has been jettisoned away from a double star system at incredibly high speeds. This system, known as PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 – or B1259 for short – is comprised of two objects in orbit around one another. The first is a star about 30 times as massive as the Sun that has a disk of material swirling around it. The other is a pulsar, an ultra-dense neutron star left behind when an even more massive star underwent a supernova explosion. Credits: NASA/CXC/PSU/G.Pavlov et al
This trio of images contains evidence from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory that a clump of stellar material has been jettisoned away from a double star system at incredibly high speeds. This system, known as PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 – or B1259 for short – is comprised of two objects in orbit around one another. The first is a star about 30 times as massive as the Sun that has a disk of material swirling around it. The other is a pulsar, an ultra-dense neutron star left behind when an even more massive star underwent a supernova explosion.
Credits: NASA/CXC/PSU/G.Pavlov et al

Space news (July 25, 2015) – 7,500 light-years away in the constellation Centaurus

The majority of lights in the night sky above are double star systems composed of two suns orbiting each other. NASA space scientists using the Chandra X-ray Observatory observed the unusual double star system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 (B1259 is the short version) three times between December 2011 and February 2014 looking for clues to its nature.

These two objects are in an unusual cosmic arrangement and have given us a chance to witness something special,” said George Pavlov of Penn State University in State College, Pennsylvania, lead author of a paper describing these results. “As the pulsar moved through the disk, it appears that it punched a clump of material out and flung it away into space.” 

Composed of a pulsar and companion star 30 times the mass of the Sun, B1259 is in a weird looking cosmic arrangement that has been kicking up a little dust lately. Recent data indicates the high-energy particle winds created by the combination of rapid rotation and intense magnetic field of the pulsar appears to have punched a hole in the disk of gas surrounding the companion star. A hole composed of gas that has been ejected from the disk at 4 million miles per hour and accelerated from 7 percent of the speed of light to 15 percent between the second and third observation periods. 

“After this clump of stellar material was knocked out, the pulsar’s wind appears to have accelerated it, almost as if it had a rocket attached,” said co-author Oleg Kargaltsev of George Washington University (GWU) in Washington, DC.

The pulsar is an ultra-dense neutron star orbiting its companion star in a highly elliptical orbit that makes its closest approach every 41 months. The companion star is rotating at a speed resulting in a disk of material spinning off, creating the thin disk of gas surrounding the massive sun. The pulsar is expected to pass through the disk of material as it makes its next approach to B1259. NASA scientists expect to view the event and collect data on the unusual nature of this double star system.  

41 months is enough time for NASA scientists to plan their next move and get other telescopes and spacecraft in place to view the event. NASA scientists will collect data on the effects of the stellar winds of the pulsar on the gas disk surrounding the companion star as it passes through. There could be another ejection of gas material as it passes close to B1259, next time, which is an opportunity to learn more about double star systems and the cosmos.

“This just shows how powerful the wind blasting off a pulsar can be,” said co-author Jeremy Hare, also of GWU. “The pulsar’s wind is so strong that it could ultimately eviscerate the entire disk around its companion star over time.”

Study continues

NASA space scientists will next view double star system B1259, later in the year, and sometime in 2016. The next passing of the pulsar through the disk of gas surrounding its companion star could be even more spectacular and unusual in nature. 

You can learn more about the Chandra X-ray Observatory here.

To learn more about double star systems go here.

To learn more about NASA’s space mission visit here. 

Read about NASA’s plans to visit Europa to have a look at the habitability of any watery environments.

Learn more about what NASA space scientists think about the possibility of life during the early moments of the universe.

Learn more about possible plate tectonic forces operating on the surface of Europa.

Aquarius

The Water Bearer’s jar fills the Celestial Sea

As is the case with all of the Zodiac constellations, Aquarius was recorded in the second century by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy. Its name means
As is the case with all of the Zodiac constellations, Aquarius was recorded in the second century by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy. Its name means “cup bearer” or “water bearer” in Latin.

Space & Astronomy Wiki – the constellations in the sky –

One of the first constellations in the night sky to be perceived the human eyes, Aquarius the Water Bearer was first recorded by Babylonian astronomers as “the Great One” on stones and official seals as early as the year 2000 BCE.

In ancient Babylon, Aquarius, the Water Bearer, ruled over a huge area of the sky known as The Sea. These were the fertilizing 'upper waters' of the ...
In ancient Babylon, Aquarius, the Water Bearer, ruled over a huge area of the sky known as The Sea. These were the fertilizing ‘upper waters’ of the …

Located in the fourth quadrant between latitude 65-90, Aquarius the Water Bearer is the 10th largest constellation covering 980 square degrees of the night sky.

Between the Great Square of Pegasus and the Bandanna of Capricornus lies the rather nondescript constellation of Aquarius the Water Bearer.
Between the Great Square of Pegasus and the Bandanna of Capricornus lies the rather nondescript constellation of Aquarius the Water Bearer.

Found near Cetus (the whale), Pisces (the fish), Delphinus (the dolphin) and Eridanus (the river) on the Sea of the Southern sky, Aquarius the Water Bearer is best viewed in the evening sky in the Southern Hemisphere in spring and autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.

Look high in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere sky early in October around 10 p.m. local time (11 p.m. local daylight saving time), or early in November around 8 p.m. local time, to best see Aquarius the Water Bearer.

This unaided eye constellation sky map has the following limits: Stars shown for brighter than 6 limiting magnitude, Star names labels shown for stars brighter than 4 limiting magnitude, Bayer/Flamsteed code labels shown for stars brighter than 5 limiting magnitude, Deep sky objects shown for objects brighter than 6 limiting magnitude.
This unaided eye constellation sky map has the following limits: Stars shown for brighter than 6 limiting magnitude, Star names label shown for stars brighter than 4 limiting magnitude, Bayer/Flamsteed code labels shown for stars brighter than 5 limiting magnitude, Deep sky objects shown for objects brighter than 6 limiting magnitude.

Look for four bright stars outlining a person with an overflowing vessel pouring water in the form of faint stars into the mouth of the star Fomalhaut in Piscis Austrinus the Southern Fish.

This is Aquarius the Water Bearer!

You can learn more about the constellation Aquarius here.

Learn about the reasons some galaxy clusters formless stars than others.

Learn about the way stars like our Sun become main sequence stars.

Learn more about the weird and wonderful planets found in the planet zoo.

Canadians Journey to Comet ISON Using ISTAR’s Phoenix WFT 204-6 Comet Hunter

ISTAR's Phoenix WFT 204-6 Comet Hunter can help you travel to Comet ISON
ISTAR’s Phoenix WFT 204-6 Comet Hunter can help you travel to Comet ISON

ISTAR’s Phoenix WFT 204-6 Comet Hunter

Astronomy Products – Fasten your seat belt amateur astronomers, we take off just before dawn, toward the star Spica in the constellation Virgo in the southeastern sky.

ISTAR’s new Phoenix WFT 204-6 Comet Hunter is blasting off for Comet ISON.

Featuring a f/5.9 achromatic doublet objective, fully multicoated optics and a dual-speed, 360 degree 2.5″ focuser, ISTAR’s new Phoenix WFT 204-6 is the perfect starship to take you to Comet ISON and beyond.

Your starship to the stars is waiting!

Drop by ISTAR-optical.com or a local telescope shop to have a look at ISTAR’s new Phoenix WFT 204-6. Once you have a look at this telescope, you’ll begin to sweat as you visualise your next celestial journey to Comet ISON around November 28, as it nears its closest point to the sun.

Can NASA astronomers detect extraterrestrial moons orbiting distant suns? Read this article to find out https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/searching-for-extraterrestrial-moons/.

Read about the latest discovery in the search for life beyond Earth https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/25/the-search-for-life-beyond-earth-takes-a-turn-at-jupiter/.

Read about the latest images of the solar system sent back by the Cassini spacecraft https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/22/cassini-spacecraft-show-views-of-the-solar-system-in-natural-color/.

Ancient Astronomers Looking at Algol for Signs

Algol is called the Demon Star
Algol is called the Demon Star

Of gods in the heavens

“Blink, blink, Demon Star. We know not what you are”

Ancient Astronomy –

Tonight the human journey to the beginning of space and time travels 93 light years to the constellation Perseus, to check out Algol, a bright blue beacon in the sky astronomers in Egypt and China studied extensively for centuries. Called the Demon Star by some stargazers, this bright blue star was believed by ancient Greeks to represent the blinking eye of Gorgon the Medusa, held high in the hands of Perseus the Hero. This is thought to be the case due to periodic changes in the Demon Star that occur every few days. The word Algol comes from the Arabic for al-Ghul – the ghoul.

Algol is thought to be feasting on the matter of another star
Algol is thought to be feasting on the matter of another star

Ancient astronomers in Egypt and China studied Algol

Modern astronomers studying Algol believe the Demon Star has a macabre habit to match its moniker. You see Algol’s a multiple star system composed of one star in the act of consuming the outer layers of the other. According to theory, two such stars in close proximity should be interacting

Modern astronomers have been studying Algol’s periodic blinking every few days, since sometime in the 17th century. In 1783, a young astronomer called John Goodricke sent a letter to the Royal Society of London suggesting this blinking could be due to a darker body passing in front of a star. It wasn’t until 1881 that University of Harvard astronomer Edward Dickering confirmed Algol has more than one sun. In fact, around 1912 a team of astronomers in Helsinki determined Algol has a brilliant blue star and bloated red star orbiting periodically close together, with a third star orbiting the pair at a distance.

John Goodricke suggested the blinking of Algol could be due to another star passing in front of the Demon Star
John Goodricke suggested the blinking of Algol could be due to another star passing in front of the Demon Star

Modern astronomers studied the Demon Star

The periodic blinking of the Demon Star occurs when the red bloated star passes in front of the blue star, merging the pair into a single point of light, which accounts for Algol turning blood red, before turning blue again around 10 hours later.

Algol is blue before turning blood red
Algol turns blood red, before appearing blue again

Click this link to watch a YouTube documentary on Algol. The documentary is a mix of different videos on the dying star, which the site has put into one show. Pretty cool stuff.

Algol: The Last Minutes of a Dying Star

Read about NASA’s Messenger spacecraft and its mission to Mercury

Have you heard about the recent meteorite that exploded near the Ural Mountains

Read about the supernova astronomers are studying looking for a black hole they think was created during the explosion

The First Possible Cradle for a New Human Genesis?

Six exo-planets are circling red dwarf star Gliese 581 20 light-years distant in the constellation Libra

 
Astronomy News – The human search for an exoplanet capable of being a cradle for a new human genesis found what many consider the first exoplanet with the physical makeup to make it possible. A team of planet hunters from the University of California (UC) Santa Cruz and the Carnegie Institute of Washington recently announced to the world the discovery of an exoplanet they believe has a few characteristics of an exoplanet with the right stuff to make life possible. Gliese 581g, as it’s referred too, has about three times the mass of Earth and appears to be situated in the right spot in the solar system of the red dwarf star Gliese 581 for the ingredients of life to exist. This is about dead center in what planet scientists term the habitable zone of Gliese 581, a position planet scientists believe could make it possible for water and an atmosphere to exist on this exoplanet, necessary ingredients for the formation of life, planet scientists believe. 

Astronomers search for a cradle for a new human genesis

 
These planet hunters have been using one of the largest time-machine-to-the-stars on the planet, the Keck I Telescope in Hawaii’s W.M Keck Observatory, to journey 20 light years to the constellation of Libra to continue the search for more planets circling red dwarf star Gliese 581 that could be habitable. Planet hunters have been using the HIRES spectrometer to precisely measure the radial velocity of the host star – the motion of the star along the line of sight from Earth – and stars close to red dwarf star Gliese 581, in order to try to find other planets circling this red dwarf star. The gravitational pull of orbiting planets causes periodic changes in the radial velocity of the host star that astronomers can calculate using sophisticated mathematical techniques we’ll cover on another day. These are the techniques planet hunters used in order to find all of the stars they have found circling red dwarf star Gliese 581, which after the two most recent planet discoveries, brings the total to six exoplanets circling this distant star.

Astronomers believe Gliese 581g is in the habitable zone of its home star

 
The discovery of six exoplanets circling red dwarf star Gliese 581 marks the high-planet mark for the human hunt for planets capable of being a cradle for a new human genesis. Gliese 581g is the only planet of the six exoplanets discovered that astronomers have indicated, so far, as being in the life zone of the red dwarf star Gliese 581. This exoplanet orbits its parent star in about 37 days and measurements planet scientists have made of its mass indicates it’s probably a rocky planet with a definite surface and enough gravity to hang onto an atmosphere. Gliese 581g is also tidally locked to its parent star, which means that one side of the planet is always facing its host star and in perpetual daylight. This makes some planet scientists believe that the best place for life to exist would be in the terminator, the part of the planet between the day and night sides of the planet.
  
Is this how the day would look on the daylight side of Gliese 581g?

 

 
Is there water on Gliese 581g and an atmosphere? Planet scientists are currently trying to find out

Check out my latest astronomy website at http://astronomytonight.yolasite.com/.

Learn why astronomy binoculars are a popular choice with amateur astronomers

Read about the Anasazi Indians

Read about astronomers viewing a supernova they think might have given birth to a black hole

WISE Shows us Infrared Views of Time and Space

The Sculptor Galaxy heats up

 

 

WISE uses four infrared detectors to view the Sculptor Galaxy

Wise takes us to the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 253 

Astronomy News – In the next leg of the human “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time” we travel 11.4 million light years, give or take a few hundred thousand, to the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 253 (the Silver Coin Galaxy) to view an infrared mosaic of images taken by NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Part of the Sculptor group of galaxies (South Polar Group), the 7.6 magnitude Silver Coin Galaxy has infant stars in duty cocoons heating up the galaxies core and broadcasting infrared light into the universe and is the brightest member of the Sculptor group of galaxies. Young emerging stars in the infrared images shown here are concentrated in the galaxies core and along the spiral arms. The green areas are tiny dust or soot particles left after the formation of these emerging stars that have absorbed the ultraviolet light from these young stars, which makes these particles glow with infrared light the four infrared detectors on WISE can detect. The blue image on the top was taken in the short wavelengths, about 3.4 and 4.6 microns, this photo has stars of all ages scattered all over the Sculptor Galaxy. 
 
NGC 253 is considered a starburst galaxy, and an intermediary type of spiral galaxy, with stars forming and exploding at unusually high rates in an intense star-forming period. First recorded by Caroline Herschel, the sister of astronomer William Herschel, on September 23, 1783, the Sculptor Galaxy can best be seen in the Sculptor constellation in the southern night sky in late September by stargazers using a time-machine-to-the-stars. Stargazers with good eyes and a dark sky can even view NGC 253 during this time, just be prepared to spend a little time in the search for the Silver Coin Galaxy.
 

Wise continues to go forth into the unknown

Check out my newest astronomy blog at http://astronomytonight.yolasite.com/.
This is why they call NGC 253 the Silver Coin Galaxy

Learn why astronomy binoculars are a popular choice with amateur astronomers

Read about the Anasazi Indians

Read about astronomers viewing a supernova they think might have given birth to a black hole