Along with two satellites orbiting Earth above WISE
Space news (November 09, 2015) – 12,000 light-years from Earth in the Auriga constellation –
A part of the universe full of young, hot stars only a million years old, the Tadpole nebula is one of the best and closest places to study the formation of new stars. At a distance of 12,000 light-years from Sol in the constellation of Auriga, the two tadpole-shaped pillars that give this region of space its name contain numerous new stars with as much as ten times the mass of our sun. Called Sim 129 and 130, the chaotic areas near the heads of these pillars are believed to harbor new stars and protostars in the process of forming.
The mosaic of images above taken by NASA’s WISE spacecraft showcases the Tadpole nebula, plus two slow moving satellites orbiting above WISE, and two slower moving asteroids traveling through the solar system.
Asteroid 1719 left a line of yellow-green tracks running across the image and pictured in the boxes near the center. Discovered in 1950, this ancient wanderer orbits in the Main Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter, and takes 4.3 years to orbit Sol.
Asteroid 1992 UZ5 is also viewed traveling across the image and is highlighted in the boxes displayed at the upper left. Little data has been gathered on this ancient rock from the dawn of the solar system. Astronomers expect to know more about this visitor from the past in the years ahead.
Highlighted in the off-center ovals near the center top and bottom right of the image are two satellites caught moving in front of WISE that appear as faint green trails.
You can learn more about asteroids from the dawn of the solar system here.
Astronomers say this monster was one of the biggest galaxy clusters of its time
Space news (November 07, 2015) – 8.5 billion light-years away in a remote part of the cosmos –
NASA astronomers conducting a survey of galaxy clusters using the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) recently viewed one of the biggest galaxy clusters ever recorded. Called Massive Overdense Object (MOO) J1142+1527, this monster galaxy cluster is in a very distant part of the universe and existed around 4 billion years before the birth of Earth.
8.5 billion years have passed since the light seen in the image above reached us here on Earth. MOO J1142+1527 has grown bigger during this time as more galaxies were drawn into the cluster and become even more extreme as far as galaxy clusters go.Containing thousands of galaxies, each with hundreds of billions of individual suns, galaxy clusters like this are some of the biggest structures in the cosmos.
“It’s the combination of Spitzer and WISE that lets us go from a quarter billion objects down to the most massive galaxy clusters in the sky,” said Anthony Gonzalez of the University of Florida in Gainesville, lead author of a new study published in the Oct. 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters.
“Based on our understanding of how galaxy clusters grow from the very beginning of our universe, this cluster should be one of the five most massive in existence at that time,” said co-author Peter Eisenhardt, the project scientist for WISE at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
Astronomers conducting this survey will now spend the next year sifting through more than 1,700 more galaxy clusters detected by the combined power of NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer looking for the largest galaxy clusters in the cosmos. Once they find the biggest galaxy clusters in the universe, they’ll use the data obtained to investigate their evolution and the extreme environments they’re found.
“Once we find the most massive clusters, we can start to investigate how galaxies evolved in these extreme environments,” said Gonzalez.
You can learn more about the mission of the Spitzer Space Telescope here.
Bizarre and mysterious stellar objects, studying black holes keeps astronomers up all night. One of the more puzzling mysteries of these unique objects are gigantic flares of X-rays (relativistic jets) detected erupting from disks of hot, glowing dust surrounding them. X-ray flares astronomers are presently studying in order to better understand these enigmatic, yet strangely attractive stellar objects.
Astronomers observing supermassive black holes using NASA’s Swift spacecraft and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) recently caught one in the middle of a gigantic X-ray flare. After analysis, they discovered this particular flare appeared to be a result of theCorona surrounding the supermassive black hole – region of highly energetic particles – being launched into space. A result making scientists and astronomers rethink their theories on how relativistic jets are created and sustained.
This result suggests to scientists that supermassive black holes emit X-ray flares when highly energized particles (Coronas) are launched away from the black hole. In this particular case, X-ray flares traveling at 20 percent of the speed of light, and directly pointing toward Earth. The ejection of the Corona caused the X-ray light emitted to brighten a little in an effect called relativistic Doppler boosting. This slightly brighter X-ray light has a different spectrum due to the motion of the Corona, which helped astronomers detect this unusual phenomenon leaving the disk of dust and gas surrounding this supermassive black hole.
“This is the first time we have been able to link the launching of the Corona to a flare,” said Dan Wilkins of Saint Mary’s University in Halifax, Canada, lead author of a new paper on the results appearing in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. “This will help us understand how supermassive black holes power some of the brightest objects in the universe.“
Astronomers currently propose two different scenarios for the source ofcoronas surrounding supermassive black holes. The “lamppost” scenario indicates coronas are analogous to light bulbs sitting above and below the supermassive black hole along its axis of rotation. This idea proposes coronas surrounding supermassive black holes are spread randomly as a large cloud or a “sandwich” that envelopes the disk of dust and material surrounding the black hole. Some astronomers think coronas surrounding supermassive black holes could alternate between both the lamppost and sandwich configurations.
The latest data seems to lean toward the “lamppost” scenario and gives us clues to how the coronas surrounding black holes move. More observations are needed to ascertain additional facts concerning this unusual phenomenon and how massive X-ray flares and gamma rays emitted by supermassive black holes are created.
“Something very strange happened in 2007, when Mrk 335 faded by a factor of 30. What we have found is that it continues to erupt in flares but has not reached the brightness levels and stability seen before,” said Luigi Gallo, the principal investigator for the project at Saint Mary’s University. Another co-author, Dirk Grupe of Morehead State University in Kentucky, has been using Swift to regularly monitor the black hole since 2007.
“The Corona gathered inward at first and then launched upwards like a jet,” said Wilkins. “We still don’t know how jets in black holes form, but it’s an exciting possibility that this black hole’s Corona was beginning to form the base of a jet before it collapsed.”
“The nature of the energetic source of X-rays we call the Corona is mysterious, but now with the ability to see dramatic changes like this we are getting clues about its size and structure,” said Fiona Harrison, the principal investigator of NuSTAR at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who was not affiliated with the study.
Astronomers will now continue their study of supermassive black holes in the cosmos in order to remove the veil of mystery surrounding the X-ray flares they emit and other bizarre mysteries surrounding these enigmatic stellar objects. In particular, they would love to discover the reasons for the ejection of Coronas surrounding black holes.
Looking for changes in features of hydrocarbon sands in order to better understand winds and dunes of Titan
Space news (Planetary science: the moons of Saturn; Titan)
At first glance of news, it might seem Saturn’s frozen moon Titan is similar to Earth in many ways, but the atmospheric phenomenon and surfaces detected aren’t anything like those on Earth. The clouds of this distant moon drop ethane and methane rain into lakes covering large regions. The solid surface of Titan is made primarily of solid water and its vast dune fields are composed of hydrocarbon sands.
The dark shadowy region in the Cassini image of Titan above hosts two large regions where planetary scientists detect hydrocarbon sand dunes called Aztlan (in the south, down direction) and Fensal (in the north, down direction). Planetary scientists study surface features looking for changes over time, which they use to better understand the atmospheric phenomenon.
The view above was taken at a distance of about 450,000 miles (730,000 kilometers), by Cassini’s narrow-angle camera on July 25, 2015, using a spectral filter sensitive to near-infrared light with a wavelength of 938 nanometers.
The mosaic below is composed of Cassini images taken on September 07, 2015, of the hemisphere of Titan containing the dune-filled regions Aztlan and Fensal. Planetary scientists detect small islands from 3 to 25 (5 to 40 kilometers) in size sprinkled around these regions, they believe are mainly water ice along the top, with a dark particulate material deposited by the atmosphere in the surrounding lower areas.
The larger island to the near right, called Bazaruto Facula, contains a dark crater, while several islands in Western Fensal above can be seen here. Images of a region called Shangri-La located on the opposite side of Titan, show similar island-features which appear in clusters with an east-west orientation along their long axis.
Aztlan to the south in this image appears to have far fewer small island features. Planetary scientists do detect three large islands in the western reaches of this region and a few smaller islands. The largest of the islands just right of center in the bottom left frame is 149 to 75 miles (240 by 120 kilometers) across and has been given the name of Sotra Facula.
Discover everything Cassini has discovered about Titan here.
Two stars shine brightly through aring of swirling dust and gas
Space news (November 04, 2015) – approximately 160 parsecs from Earth in the Chamaeleon I Dark Cloud –
Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope recently viewed one of the youngest and closest star systems found during the human journey to the beginning of space and time. Star system Dl Cha is a young quadruple system of suns deep within the Chamaeleon Complex, a mysterious region of space comprised of three clouds of gas and dust.Composed of two binary star systems, Dl Cha is one of the best young systems to study to learn more about star formation because of its youth and nearness to Sol.
Dl Cha is located in Chamaeleon I Dark Cloud, one of the closest star-forming regions to Earth, with as many as 200-300 young suns. Newly-formed suns that mold the dust and gas in the surrounding region into a spiraling wrap enveloping Dl Cha in a light-absorbing shroud. A shroud of gas and dust scientists are peering through using the latest ground and space telescopes to learn more aboutthe processes the cosmos uses to create new stars.
The Chamaeleon I Dark Cloud contains 70-90 mysterious X-ray sources, including Cha Halpha, the first X-ray emitting brown dwarf ever located. As the gas and dust swirls and moves in this region of space, more young stars will be viewed, and the veil surrounding the mystery of these X-ray sources and star formation lifted. A veil lifting astronomers expect to reveal more cosmic mysteries as the human journey to the beginning of space and time unfolds.
You can learn more about star formation in the cosmos here.