Nebra Sky Disk Portable Instrument for Syncing Solar and Lunar Calendar with Seasons

Bronze Age Europeans used the sky disk to determine if a thirteen month needed to be added to the year

The Nebra sky disk was found with a hoard of artifacts scientists are still studying to determine their origin and construction.
The Nebra sky disk was found with a hoard of artifacts scientists are still studying to determine their origin and construction.

Space news (ancient astronomy: ancient, advanced astronomical instruments; the Nebra sky disk) – astronomical clock from 3600 BCE Germany, discovered in 2003 

The trail starts in February 2003, when two treasure hunters tried to illegally sell Bronze Age artifacts to an undercover officer posing as an antiquities dealer, in the basement bar of the Hilton Hotel in Basle, Switzerland. Among the items found in the treasure hoard, investigators discovered a damaged 32-cm-wide (12.6-inch) bronze disk, with what appeared to be representations of the Sun, Moon and possibly stars.

Subsequent police investigations discovered the treasure looters found the bronze disk on the top of 252-meter Mittelberg hill in the German state of Sachsen-Anhalt in 1999. The hill at the time was part of a bigger archaeological site under study and is close to the famed Goseck Henge site. 

Archaeologists studying the 2.2 kg bronze disk found the symbols were inlaid with gold leaf and included a possible representation of the seven visible stars of the Pleiades star cluster (Seven Sisters) 3,600 years ago. 

Subsequent analysis found the bronze disk, which was called the Nebra sky disk, appeared to be an advanced astronomical instrument. A 1600 BCE Bronze Age disk Europeans used to determine the winter and summer solstices and other important dates of the year.

Archaeologists believe the Nebra sky disk was developed through four different stages over a 400 year period. Possibly used to accurately predict important events and times during the year, this handheld instrument was probably used by only a select few or one individual. A truly advanced astronomical instrument for the age and culture it was being used, the Nebra sky disk tells us how little we know about the celestial knowledge and skills of ancient people of the region and age.

Archaeologists studying the Nebra sky disk think it was constructed through four different phases, over a four hundred year period.
Archaeologists studying the Nebra sky disk think it was constructed during four different phases, over a four hundred year period.

Recently, a team of German scientists found evidence suggesting the disk was also used to synchronize the solar and lunar calendars people living in the region of Sachsen-Anhalt used during the Bronze Age. 

“This is a clear expansion of what we knew about the meaning and function of the sky disc,” said archaeologist Harald Meller.

The lunar calendar used by Bronze Age humans was based upon the phases of the moon, which ancient cultures observed for thousands of years. The lunar calendar is eleven days shorter than the solar calendar because it only takes 354 days for the moon to return to new phase 12 times. 

Ancient cultures around the world during distant times used a lunar calendar to keep track of celestial and yearly events.
Ancient cultures around the world during distant times used a lunar calendar to keep track of celestial and yearly events.

Archaeoastronomers think the Nebra disk was used to determine if a thirteenth month needed to be added to the lunar calendar to keep it in sync with the solar calendar and seasons. Bronze Age farmers used a combination of solar and lunar calendars to determine planting and harvesting times through the year. Ancient astronomers or shaman able to predict these yearly events accurately would have been very valuable to the survival of a tribe. Syncing calendars would need to be done every two or three years in order to make sure the crops were planted and harvested on the right dates.

Mysteries remain

The trail started to twist when archaeologists and archaeoastronomers noted the moon on the Nebra sky disk was too thick to be in a new moon phase. After consulting the Mul-Apin collection of Babylonian scripts from the 6th and 7th century B.C, they determined the alignment of the moon and the Pleiades pictured in the sky map is as it should be if a thirteenth month needed to be added. 

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It puzzled scientists how Bronze Age cultures in Europe around 1,600 BCE, knew lunar and solar calendars needed to be synchronized, 1,000 years before the Babylonians? Where did they get the understanding and technology required to accomplish this feat?  

Were the sky disk and the knowledge to use it passed onto specific Bronze Age Europeans

Did they inherit the knowledge and technology to build the Nebra sky disk? 

What do we know?

The Nebra sky disk was a complex, portable astronomical clock used by Bronze Age Europeans to determine important seasonal dates and align solar and lunar calendars essential for determining planting and harvesting times of crops. What other ceremonial and astronomical functions was the sky disk used for?

If archaeoastronomers and archaeologists are right, 3600 years ago Bronze Age humans used the Nebra sky disk to help their society and culture survive the onslaught of nature. It probably also held both a ceremonial and cultural significance to the Bronze Age culture in terms of the best time of the year to trade for specific items and goods

Standing upon the crest of Mittelberg hill in Sachsen-Anhalt region of Germany 3600 years ago, Bronze Age astronomers would have held the disk against the sky to compare the position of the moon and stars of the Pleiades, to their positions as pictured in the face of the Nebra sky disk. 

If the positions matched, the astronomer would know it was time to add a thirteenth month to the lunar calendar. It’s possible that after generations of use, the knowledge of how it was devised was lost. The use of the Nebra sky disk doesn’t require knowledge of its engineering and design. In the end, it might have just been a ceremonial or cult object of worship, once the knowledge of its use was lost.

How and why the sky disk came to be buried upon Mittelberg hill in Sachsen-Anhalt Germany is an interesting question? Was it buried and then somehow forgotten? 

Archaeologists do know that when the Nebra sky disk was buried, it had thirty-nine or forty holes punched out along the perimeter of its face. They also know the gold and tin used in the metallurgy of the bronze was from the river Carnon in Cornwall. A portable device of such construction and importance would have been very valuable to its owner. The owner carried a portable Stonehenge in their pocket, one of the most important and monumental ancient astronomical constructions of its age. With this astronomical device in your pocket and the knowledge how to use it, a traveler could go places and be valuable to any society. 

Not all archaeologists agree the Nebra sky disk was used for astronomical measurements of the Sun, the moon, and stars pictured on its face. Instead, they point out the features pictured on the disk tend to be inexact and were more likely used in shamanic rituals.

Perhaps one day, archaeologists will discover additional artifacts that will shed more light on the mysteries surrounding the Nebra sky disk. Until that day arrives, the oldest known example of an astronomical clock sits awaiting additional confirmation of its uses and importance to ancient Europeans.

Learn more about the Nebra sky disk here.

Learn more about Stonehenge here.

Discover the oldest known solar observatory in the world, Goseck Henge here.

Learn about the Mul-Apin collection of Babylonian scripts from the 6th and 7th century B.C here.

Learn what astronomers have discovered about young, newborn stars.

Read about the ocean of liquid water beneath the icy shell of Saturn’s moon Enceladus.

Learn more about what astronomers have discovered about the evolution and growth of the Milky Way Galaxy.

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7,000 Year Old Solar Observatory Built to Mark the Winter and Summer Solstice

Goseck Henge is believed to be possibly the oldest example of the desire of European Neolithic farmers to measure the heavens to gain knowledge and understanding of the world around them

Considered by many to be the oldest known solar observatory in the world, Goseck Henge is an example of the determination and ingenuity of European Neolithic farmers.
Considered by many to be the oldest known solar observatory in the world, Goseck Henge is an example of the determination and ingenuity of European Neolithic farmers.

Ancient astronomy – 7,000 years ago

It all started in 1991 when German officials noticed dark ridges in an aerial photograph of a wheat field 40 miles southwest of Leipzig, Germany. Dark ridges forming a giant circular ridge, confirmed later by a magnetometer survey to be part of a 7,000-year-old circular enclosure, with southeast and southwest gates interestingly aligned. 

The dark ridges in this aerial photograph (left) taken by German government officials in 1991 showed something unusual. The magnetometer readings taken later showed a definite anomaly.
The dark ridges in this aerial photograph (left) taken by German government officials in 1991 showed something unusual. The magnetometer readings taken later showed a definite anomaly.

Global Positioning System data and scientific analysis by archaeologists Peter Biehl and Francois Bertemes in 2002 determined the southeast gate of the ancient enclosure is possibly an entrance way aligned to mark the arrival of the winter solstice (first day of winter) and old man winter. The southwest gate is aligned to the summer solstice (first day of summer) and the coming of warm weather and youthful summer.

We had just started our archaeology program, and we wanted a place near the university for our students to practice,” says Biehl, formerly a professor at Halle-Wittenberg University and now at Cambridge.” 

The evidence collected thus far indicates Goseck Henge is possibly the world’s oldest known solar observatory. The Neolithic farmers of 7,000 years ago in Europe were doing more than tilling the land with basic tools to increase production. They were also watching and measuring the heavens using primitive, yet inventive technology in order to know the best time to plant crops to maximize growing time.

Goseck Henge isn’t unique to the region, archaeologists have excavated hundreds of similar wooden circular enclosures built in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic, all dated to a 200-year period around 4,600 B.C.

Except for the difference in size, all have basically the same features. Neolithic farmers dug a narrow ditch around a circular wooden wall, with large gates equally spaced around the outer edge.

Archaeologists for years tried to make sense of the hundreds of 7,000-year-old circular enclosures found dotting the landscape of Neolithic Europe. All created during a period when the Stroke-Ornamented Pottery Culture (STK) dominated Central Europe, which confuses archaeologists.

The Goseck site is helping to provide the answers archaeologist have been searching for after years of painstaking work at the enclosure. Analysis of the site indicates Neolithic farmers probably used the circular enclosure to worship celestial objects and constellations. Celestial objects and constellations they linked to natural events which determined their survival or death. 

Archaeologists believe such sites were probably used for much more than just the worship of the Sun, moon or constellations. This was probably the first monumental architecture in the world,” says Biehl, noting that the sites served as ritual observatories two thousand years before the ancient Egyptians erected pyramids along the Nile.

Since the discovery of Goseck Henge, news media has named the enclosure the “German Stonehenge” and public interest has increased to the point the German state of Saxon-Anhalt decided to make an investment in its past and present.

History relived

Today, standing on the original site of Goseck Henge is an authentic reconstruction of the circular enclosure. Composed of over 2,000 oak posts stripped by hand in order to give the site the look and feel of a Neolithic site of 7,000 years ago. European farmers and public gather on the winter solstice every year, to watch a pale winter sun blaze its final rays on the southeastern gate as their ancestors did over 7,000 years ago.

European farmers and astronomy enthusiasts can today gather to pay respect to ancient Neolithic farmers and the Sun and stars.
European farmers and astronomy enthusiasts periodically gather to pay respect to ancient Neolithic farmers and the Sun and stars.

You can learn more about Goseck Henge here.

Read more about Stonehenge here.

Discover the journey of NASA here.

Read about the exciting work being done in the field of star formation

Read about the recent flare-up of the Monster of the Milky Way

Read about astronomers confirmation of evidence proving there’s an ocean of liquid water beneath the icy shell of Saturn’s moon Enceladus.

Aquarius

The Water Bearer’s jar fills the Celestial Sea

As is the case with all of the Zodiac constellations, Aquarius was recorded in the second century by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy. Its name means
As is the case with all of the Zodiac constellations, Aquarius was recorded in the second century by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy. Its name means “cup bearer” or “water bearer” in Latin.

Space & Astronomy Wiki – the constellations in the sky –

One of the first constellations in the night sky to be perceived the human eyes, Aquarius the Water Bearer was first recorded by Babylonian astronomers as “the Great One” on stones and official seals as early as the year 2000 BCE.

In ancient Babylon, Aquarius, the Water Bearer, ruled over a huge area of the sky known as The Sea. These were the fertilizing 'upper waters' of the ...
In ancient Babylon, Aquarius, the Water Bearer, ruled over a huge area of the sky known as The Sea. These were the fertilizing ‘upper waters’ of the …

Located in the fourth quadrant between latitude 65-90, Aquarius the Water Bearer is the 10th largest constellation covering 980 square degrees of the night sky.

Between the Great Square of Pegasus and the Bandanna of Capricornus lies the rather nondescript constellation of Aquarius the Water Bearer.
Between the Great Square of Pegasus and the Bandanna of Capricornus lies the rather nondescript constellation of Aquarius the Water Bearer.

Found near Cetus (the whale), Pisces (the fish), Delphinus (the dolphin) and Eridanus (the river) on the Sea of the Southern sky, Aquarius the Water Bearer is best viewed in the evening sky in the Southern Hemisphere in spring and autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.

Look high in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere sky early in October around 10 p.m. local time (11 p.m. local daylight saving time), or early in November around 8 p.m. local time, to best see Aquarius the Water Bearer.

This unaided eye constellation sky map has the following limits: Stars shown for brighter than 6 limiting magnitude, Star names labels shown for stars brighter than 4 limiting magnitude, Bayer/Flamsteed code labels shown for stars brighter than 5 limiting magnitude, Deep sky objects shown for objects brighter than 6 limiting magnitude.
This unaided eye constellation sky map has the following limits: Stars shown for brighter than 6 limiting magnitude, Star names label shown for stars brighter than 4 limiting magnitude, Bayer/Flamsteed code labels shown for stars brighter than 5 limiting magnitude, Deep sky objects shown for objects brighter than 6 limiting magnitude.

Look for four bright stars outlining a person with an overflowing vessel pouring water in the form of faint stars into the mouth of the star Fomalhaut in Piscis Austrinus the Southern Fish.

This is Aquarius the Water Bearer!

You can learn more about the constellation Aquarius here.

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Thousands of Years Ago Ancient Peruvians Used 13 Towers Spread Along the Horizon to Mark the Rising and Setting of the Sun Through the Year

The rise of the sun between Tower 1 and Cerro Mucho Malo at the June solstice, 2003, viewed from the western solar observaotry. The sunrise positionInserting image... at the solstice has shifted to the right approximately 0.3° from year 300 BC.  Credit: Ivan Ghezzi
The rise of the sun between Tower 1 and Cerro Mucho Malo at the June solstice, 2003, viewed from the western solar observatory. The sunrise positionInserting image… at the solstice has shifted to the right approximately 0.3° from year 300 BC.
Credit: Ivan Ghezzi

Observations of the number of days between the rising and setting of the sun from tower to tower allowed ancient astronomers to create a solar calendar  

Chanquillo is considered the oldest solar observatory so far discovered in the Americas
Chanquillo is considered the oldest solar observatory so far discovered in the Americas

Ancient space astronomy – 

2,300 years ago (fourth century B.C.) ancient Peruvian astronomers living along the coast near the Casma-Sechin Oasis built a solar observatory used to mark the rising and setting of the sun. Called the Chankillo archaeological site, it consists of 13 towers spanning 980 feet (300 meters) north to south along a low rising horizon, which form an ancient observatory archaeoastronomers believe was used to track the rising and falling Sun. By timing the days it took the sun to travel between towers, the solar year could be broken into periods, scientists believe, forming a sort of solar calendar used for ceremonial and cultural purposes.  

Archaeologists believe ceremonies and cultural events were held in buildings close to this ancient solar observatory. They found pottery, shells and stone carvings at the end of the 131-ft corridor in the building west of the towers, possibly left by commoners participating in solar observing ceremonies and cultural events. They also found a pair of inset staircases leading upward to each tower summit, suggesting the area was well traveled. 

Chankillo is arguably the oldest solar calendar that can be identified as such with confidence within the Americas,” said lead study author Ivan Ghezzi from Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru. 

“Many indigenous American sites have been found to contain one or a few putative solar orientations,” Ghezzi said. “Chankillo, in contrast, provides a complete set of horizon markers and two unique and indisputable observation points.” 

Around 230 meters (750 feet) to the west and east of the north and south running line of 13 towers astronomers discovered possible observation points. They also discovered that seen from these positions the 980-foot span of the 13 towers closely matches the position of the rising and falling Sun through the year. 

“For example,” said Professor Ruggles, “If you stood at the western observing point, you would see the Sun coming up in the morning, but where it would appear along the span of towers would depend on the time of the year.” 

“So, on the summer solstice, which is in December in Peru, you would see the Sun just right of the right-most tower; for the winter solstice, in June, you would see the Sun rise to the left of the left-most tower; and in-between, the Sun would move up and down the horizon.” 

“This means ancient Peruvians could have regulated a calendar, he said, “by keeping track of the number of days it took for the Sun to move from tower to tower.” 

Archaeoastronomers have found similar solar observing sites in South America built by the Incan empire between 1100 and 1530 A.D. This ancient observatory predates the Incas by 1700 years and it’s massive in size and sophisticated for its time. It also highlights the importance of observing the Sun in the daily lives and cultural of ancient Peruvians and is a testament to the scientific knowledge and will of ancient Peruvian builders and astronomers.  

“Chankillo was built approximately 1,700 years before the Incas began their expansion,” Ghezzi said. “Now we know these practices are quite a bit older and were highly developed by Chankillo’s time. 

Some archaeologists think more work needs to be done

If archaeologists and archaeoastronomers are correct. Possibly as early as 600 BCE, ancient Peruvian astronomers used the Chankillo site to track the rising and setting of the sun through the solar year. As a calendar to determine moments to hold important ceremonial and cultural events. The oldest solar calendar discovered to this date in South America.

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Rosetta Spacecraft Set to Deploy Lander to Surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

The Rosetta spacecraft uses its 11 scientific instruments to study the surface of comet  67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko
The Rosetta spacecraft uses its 11 scientific instruments to study the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Credits: NASA

After a decade traveling through the solar system, Rosetta is preparing to write history 

This image taken by Rosetta shows the primary landing site of Philae
This image taken by Rosetta shows the primary landing site of Philae. Credits: ESA/Rosetta

The image above shows the primary landing site of Philae, Rosetta’s lander, which is expected to make a soft landing on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko at Site J, or backup Site C, on Nov. 12, 2014. Image credit: ESA/Rosetta

Between Mars and Jupiter (Oct. 11, 2014) –

After two weeks of analysis of possible trajectories the flight dynamics and operations teams of the European Space Agency (ESA) is preparing to make the first soft landing of a robot on a comet on Nov. 12, 2014. Expectations are for Rosetta to release Philae at around 08:35 UTC (12:35 a.m PST; 9:35 a.m. Central European Time), if Site J is the target, at a height of 14 miles (22.5 kilometers) above the center of the comet.

Philae will release from Rosetta on Nov. 12 and hopefully make a soft landing on comet  67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko
Philae will release from Rosetta on Nov. 12 and hopefully, make a soft landing on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Image credit: ESA

If all goes as expected, Philae should make a soft landing about seven hours later, around 7:35 a.m. PST. Here on Earth, mission specialists will get the confirmation of a successful landing 28 minutes and 20 seconds later, due to the time it takes the signal to travel between Rosetta and the Earth. This means we should get word on whether Philae made a successful landing around 16:00 UTC (8 a.m PST; 5 p.m CET).

Should the decision be made to try for backup Site C, instead of Site J, the lander will be released at 13:04 UTC (5:04 a.m. PST; 2:04 p.m. CET) at a distance of about 7.8 miles (12.5 kilometers) from the center of the comet?

In the backup scenario, Philae should land about four hours after release, which means the confirmation signal should arrive at Earth somewhere around 17:30 UTC (9:30 a.m. PST; 6:30 p.m CET). All times are estimates subject to uncertainties of minutes.

The Rosetta team will make a final decision on the landing site on October 14, 2014, after they review the lander to see if it’s ready for launch, and take a look at the high-resolution images of the landing sites they’ll take between now and Nov. 12.

During the week including Oct. 14, the ESA is planning on having a contest to determine the best name for the landing site selected. This is your chance to stamp your name on Rosetta and its mission. Check the Rosetta mission website to sign up for the competition and check out the rules.

A joint space mission spearheaded by the European Space Agency, but with help from NASA and friends, the Rosetta Space Mission is expected to enlighten us about the origins of comets and possibly life on Earth. Comets are time capsules containing material left over from the time when the solar system and Earth were being formed. Scientists will study the gas, dust, and structure of the interior of the comet to unlock secrets about the past, evolution and possible future of Earth and the solar system. They also hope to shine a light on the origins of Earth’s water and how life came to exist on one out of the way little planet in the middle of nowhere.

After Philae has landed, it will begin to study the comet up close using 10 scientific instruments. Rosetta will continue to study the comet and its composition and structure over the next year and a bit as they travel together around the sun and then back to the outer solar system.

Hundreds of year from now, when future archaeoastronomers discover Philae sitting on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, will it create the energy and wonder created by its namesake – the Rosetta Stone – discovered in 1799 by French soldier Pierre-Francois Bouchard near the town of Rosetta in Egypt.

Philae will be sitting

Will scientists hundreds of years in the future argue over the true origin and meaning of the device they discover on a lonely comet circling the sun? Will it create widespread public interest in determining how, why and when it came to rest on a piece of the original building blocks of the solar system? Time will tell the story sometime in the future. A story that could inspire others to delve deeper into the mystery of the solar system and life on Earth.

You can find additional information on the current status of the Rosetta mission here.

Read about the ghostly glow of streaking Orionids

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Read about something unusual discovered during a future mission to Earth

Earth Mission Discovers Something Unusual

Space news (August 05, 3897)

Archaeoastronomers of the Earth Mission today discovered something unusual under the dry sand of Chile’s Atacama desert. Buried ten to fifteen feet under the hot, dry sand of the Chajnantor plateau of the Chilean Andes at an altitude of 5,000 meters they discovered a human relic from an early age. What appears to be a human made instrument scientists date to about 2014 AD.

Space scientists unearthed a 12-meter concave metal dish, broken off at the base. The origins and design of the artifact are a mystery to space scientists and historians at this point. Records from this period of human history are sketchy at best, so historians are at odds as to the original use of such a weird looking artifact.

Chile’s Atacama desert is a very isolated and unforgiving environment today and we expect it wasn’t much more inviting in the twenty-first century AD. Documents from the time indicate this region was home to a large facility of some type, possible scientific in nature, but it isn’t clear just what they were studying.

Archaeoastronomers indicate ancient records point to humans of this period being intensely interested in the solar system and the study of the stars in the night sky. Even today space scientists indicate the high plateaus of Chile’s Atacama desert are the perfect spot to observe the sky. This leads archaeoastronomers to believe the site was possible the home of an ancient observatory of some kind.

“The true origins, design, and uses of this artifact are at this point a puzzle, but we believe the 12-meter dish was part of a scientific instrument of some type. Humans of the 21st century spent a lot of time and resources studying the solar system and stars. We think this artifact was part of a much larger instrument and facility,” said lead archaeoastronomer of the Earth Mission, William Hurte.

Archaeoastronomers will now try to piece together the puzzle of this strange looking artifact, using the facts they have to go on, and continued the study of the site and surrounding region. The site is difficult to reach and the environment unforgiving and harsher than any we face here on Sintera. Space scientists face dangers from both the natural environment and strange lifeforms the Institute for Scientific Study is planning on sending a team to study at some point.

The questions at this point keep piling up for archaeoastronomers of the Earth Mission, but they have decades to piece together the puzzle.

What do you think?

Tell us what you think? Is this artifact an ancient weapon of some kind? A scientific instrument? Maybe an astronomical device?

Drop us a line here and we’ll post your comments.

Read about the first “Earth-sized Planet Discovered Orbiting Within Habitable Zone of Star”

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Ancient Astronomers Knew the Earth was Round

By the time old Christopher Columbus announces the world is round, this was old news to ancient astronomers
By the time Christopher Columbus announces the world is round, this was old news to ancient astronomers

To ancient sky watchers, Christopher Columbus was old news

Ancient Astronomy – Humans have been looking upward at the stars in the night sky for tens of thousands of years, wondering where it all began. Prehistoric humans revered the earth and heavens above and used the stars as a guide. Thousands of years ago ancient astronomers in China and India spent whole lifetimes staring into the vastness of time and space, cataloging the patterns of stars in the night sky. By the time Christopher Columbus announced the world was round, it was old news to ancient sky watchers in many regions of the world.

Greek Astronomy and Astronomers

Around the fifth century BC, Pythagoras announces, "The world is a globe".
Around the fifth century BC, Pythagoras announces, “The world is a globe”.

The earth is a globe (Pythagoras)

In the western world it’s believed the fifth century BC Greek philosopher and astronomer Pythagoras originated the idea of a spherical earth, but the possibility of this idea being borrowed from Egyptian or eastern sources exists. Two hundred years later another Greek, Aristarchus of Samos, affirmed the belief in the earth’s spherical shape. He also announced the earth spun on its axis and, like the other planets, revolved around the sun. It wasn’t until the third century BC that Eratosthenes, custodian of the library of Alexandria, used his knowledge of astronomy to measure with considerable accuracy the earth’s circumference and diameter.

Astronomers in India

Aryabhata (476–550 CE)was the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy
Aryabhata (476–550 CE) was the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy

Ancient writings show that ancient astronomers of India had ascertained the spherical shape of the earth by the fourth century BC. Verses from the Sanskrit sacred books called the Vedas written in 3000 BC refer to a sun-centered universe. A universe ruled by the sun, moon, earth, sky and dawn, all deities to ancient astronomers in India, with attributes to match their natural ability. By the first century BC, it’s clear ancient astronomers and many common people in India knew the earth was spherical in shape.

Chinese Astronomers

Zhang Heng believed the earth was round and taught this fact
Zhang Heng believed the earth was round and taught this fact

Chinese astronomy has roots at least 4000 years old and China is considered by most archaeoastronomers to be the oldest known star watching society on earth. Ancient Chinese pottery dated to 6,000 years ago shows scenes of the sun, moon and stars, even ancient Chinese records of the stars are depicted on bones and shells, but the oldest known evidence points back as far as 14,000 BC. Ancient Chinese astronomers were studying and cataloging the patterns of stars in the sky tens of thousands of years ago.

By the time Christopher Columbus announced to the western world the earth was round, this was old news to star watchers and astronomers in many of the most advanced regions of the world.

Watch this documentary on the History Channel about Christopher Columbus.

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