MACS 0647-JD could be the most distant galaxy viewed so far during the human journey to the beginning of space and time

Hubble Views Most Distant Galaxy Ever

MACS 0647-JD could be the most distant galaxy viewed so far during the human journey to the beginning of space and time
Astronomers looking at images of MACS 0647-JD believe it’s only about 600 light-years wide

The first galaxies

Astronomy news (November 28, 2013) – The Hubble Space Telescope, along with the light magnifying ability of the effect called gravitational lensing, has provided the first views of the most distant galaxy seen during the human journey to the beginning of space and time. The astronomers of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble (CLASH) recently discovered three gravity-lensed images of a galaxy that existed over 13.7 billions years ago taken using Hubble’s new panchromatic imaging capabilities. Designated MACS 0647-JD, this ancient star city is currently the most distant galaxy located to date using the Hubble Space Telescope and gravitational lensing.

Astronomers used the Hubble Space Telescope and gravitational lensing to look at MACS 0647-JD
Astronomers used the Hubble Space Telescope to help view MACS 0647-JD

The CLASH program

The astronomers of CLASH used the Hubble Space Telescope to look at 25 distant galaxy clusters during the period from November 2010 to July 2013. They were looking for light which had been magnified due to the effect known as gravitational lensing as predicted by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. They wanted to detect additional Type Ia supernovae, map the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters, detect the most distant galaxies ever and study the internal structure and evolution of the galaxies in and behind these clusters.

The three gravity-lensed images taken by Hubble are of a small galaxy, now designated MACS 0647-JD, which could have been one of the first galaxies to exist in the universe. Astronomers’ analysis of the images suggests this small galaxy was less than 600 light-years across, which may indicate it was in the first stages of galaxy formation. In fact, this smaller galaxy may have been just one building block in the construction of a larger galaxy, and during the past 13.7 billions years could have been part of dozens, hundreds and even thousands of merging events with other galaxies.

Astronomers look at other possibilities

The astronomers of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble recently used the ability of NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope to help rule out other possible identities of the three images they found. Next, astronomers will use the Spitzer Space Telescope, and other telescopes, to confirm the existence of the galaxy and try to get a better estimate of its age.

Astronomers hope to use the data they obtain from the study of galaxies like MACS 0647-JD to learn more about the early universe
Astronomers hope to use the James Webb Space Telescope to look even further back in time and space

Can NASA astronomers detect extraterrestrial moons orbiting distant suns? Read this article to find out https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/searching-for-extraterrestrial-moons/.

Read about the latest discovery in the search for life beyond Earth https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/25/the-search-for-life-beyond-earth-takes-a-turn-at-jupiter/.

Read about the latest images of the solar system sent back by the Cassini spacecraft https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/22/cassini-spacecraft-show-views-of-the-solar-system-in-natural-color/.

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Something Unusual, Something New

Some of the biggest explosions in the universe

Astronomy News – Supernovas are some of the most powerful and visually striking events observed during the human “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time. Releasing more energy in a single moment than Sol will over its entire lifetime, a supernova is luminous enough to shine brighter in the night sky than entire galaxies during one moment in space and time, before slowly fading from view over several weeks or months. The force of a supernova expels a large percentage of a star’s mass into the darkness of space and time at about 10 percent of the speed of light and creates a shock wave that sweeps up the expanding shell of gas and dust released during the explosion referred to by astronomers as a supernova remnant. 

 Astronomers search for new supernovae

Astronomers using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope to search the night sky for active galactic nuclei (AGN), super-massive black holes at the center of galaxies, recently reported the discovery of a supernova smothered in the remnants of its own star-dust during their search. This has astronomers scratching their heads in amazement at something they have never viewed during the human “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time. Scientists think supernovas like this one probably occurred during the early universe, more than they do during present time, and this discovery has astronomers looking for answers to questions they never thought they would be asking.
 

Astronomers realised something was different

The recorded temperature of the object they were viewing was about 1,000 Kelvin (about 700 degrees Celsius), which is slightly hotter than the surface of Venus. This means something was dissipating the light energy of the supernova as heat? Astronomers wondered if the dust from the supernova could be choking off the light from the supernova and creating the heat they were viewing? Taking data from studies of NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope astronomers worked backward in space and time to see if they could figure out what kind of star could have theoretically created this supernova and if they could recreate a scenario where the dust from a supernova obscures the universe from the light released during the supernova. They calculated that the star in this supernova would have to be a giant star at least 50 times as massive as Sol. Astronomers have viewed these types of stars releasing huge clouds of dust as they near the end of their lives, but they calculated this particular star probably released clouds of stardust several times during this same period of time. The last cloud of stardust expelled would, therefore, be closer to this massive star, than earlier released clouds of stardust, they reasoned. If the earlier dust cloud was also opaque, it would absorb the light energy released during later energy releases, and this could certainly account for the hot dust cloud they observed through NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope.
 
This dust cloud obscures the dust from its parent star

Check out my latest astronomy website at http://astronomytonight.yolasite.com/.

Read about NASA’s Messenger spacecraft and its mission to Mercury

Have you heard about the recent meteorite that exploded near the Ural Mountains

Read about the supernova astronomers are studying looking for a black hole they think was created during the explosion

The Biggest Bang of Them All?

The term Big Bang is actually not the right way to describe the beginning of the universe
The Big Bang is the human term for the beginning of space and time
Did the universe begin with the biggest bang of them all?

The “Big Bang Theory” Hits Home

Astronomy News – Ever heard of the “Big Bang Theory”, the television show starring Johnny Galecki and Jim Parsons as two nerdy physicists being taught the meaning of a big bang by the sexy and memorable Kaley Cuoco as Penny. We’ll astronomers have a theory about the biggest bang of them all, they call the “Big Bang”. A theory about the beginning of space and time and the reasons the universe you’ll experience during your “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time” is expanding and continuing to expand, astronomers “Big Bang” theory is the best theory humans have conceptualized, so far, to explain the beginning of the universe and the things humans experience during our “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time”.
 

An expanding universe

 
The discovery of the expanding universe by Edwin Hubble in the 1920s led to the conclusion by astronomers and scientists that the universe must once have been much closer together, and fundamentally changed the way astronomers view the universe and space and time as possible proof of the “Big Bang”. Did the universe begin in an instant of space and time in a cosmic event we refer to as the “Big Bang”? Modern astronomers are currently using the latest technology and biggest telescopes ever engineered and built by mankind to journey backward in time to the moments just before the birth of the universe to look for clues to answers to this question. The Hubble Space Telescope and soon to be launched James Webb Space Telescope will form a team of astronomical instruments that will help astronomers look backward to a time just before the “Big Bang” would have occurred, if present theories are correct. At present, astronomers have only journeyed backward to a time about 1 or 2 million years before this supposed, “Big Bang”, but they expect to travel farther backward to a time closer to the Big Bang, once the James Webb Space Telescope is up and running around 2014 or 2015, according to the latest estimates by NASA.
 
Astronomers studying the beginning of space and time plan to use the James Webb Space Telescope to get a better view of this moment
Astronomers are planning to journey back to the beginning of space and time to see if they can prove this Big Bang really happened
Check out my latest astronomy website at http://astronomytonight.yolasite.com/.

 

Learn how NASA astronomers are planning on detecting extraterrestrial moons orbiting distant suns https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/searching-for-extraterrestrial-moons/.

 

Read about the latest news on life beyond Earth https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/25/the-search-for-life-beyond-earth-takes-a-turn-at-jupiter/.

 

Take a look at the latest natural color images taken by the Cassini spacecraft https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/22/cassini-spacecraft-show-views-of-the-solar-system-in-natural-color/.

 

 
 
 

 

The Earth’s Movements: Spaceshipearth1’s Orbit

 

The Earth is moving at several different velocities at this very moment

 

The combination of the Earth’s movements helps to create the seasons and environment of Spaceshipearth1

The Earth’s orbit around Sol and other things

A little seasoning anyone!

All motion is relative according to Einstein’s theories of space and time

Astronomy answers and questions – The Earth beneath you and the night sky above you are both moving relative to each other and you, and the universe around you. The Earth not only spins counterclockwise on its axis but also orbits Sol about once every 365 spins on its axis, give or take a few minutes, in a counterclockwise direction. Speeding through space and time at an impressive 100,000 km/hr (60,000 miles/hr), around 100 times faster than a speeding bullet, faster than the launch speed for any known spacecraft and certainly faster than Superman, the Earth’s orbit isn’t a perfect circle. In fact, the distance of the Earth to Sol during its transit differs significantly at different times, due to this non-circular orbit, but on average the distance between Earth and Sol is about 150 million kilometers (93 million miles). This distance astronomers call an astronomical unit or AU, and this unit is used by astronomers as a measuring stick of sorts, only on a bigger scale than the mile or kilometer.

Up and down has no meaning

The axis of the Earth during its orbit is also tilted about 23 1/2 degrees from the line perpendicular to the flat plane traced out by the Earth’s orbit around Sol. This flat plane astronomers call the ecliptic plane and in reality, this axis tilt has no meaning in Einstein’s spacetime and is only useful in relation to the ecliptic plane. In Einstein’s universe, the notion of tilt by itself has no meaning in spacetime, where up and down are related to away from the center of the Earth (or any body with mass) and toward the center of mass, respectively.

The Earth’s axis also continues to point in the same general direction throughout Earth’s orbit of Sol. This direction is toward Polaris, often called the North Star by travelers and navigators, and lies within 1 degree of the north celestial pole, which makes it useful for navigating on the surface of Earth. This direction closely marks the direction of due north in the night sky and the altitude of Polaris is nearly equal to the latitude of an observer on the surface of Earth. Navigators and star gazers have used these facts for thousands of years to determine direction and location on the Earth’s surface and travel from one destination to another.

The changing position of Earth during the 365 days it takes the Earth to complete one orbit also results in the night sky above your head changing nightly. Sol appears to move against a background of distant stars in the 88 constellations in the Milky Way above you. The 12 constellations along the ecliptic plane star gazers refer to as the constellations of the Zodiac, but a thirteenth constellation, Ophiuchus lies partially on the ecliptic plane, as well.

Earth’s movements help create seasons

The combination of the rotation of the Earth on its tilted axis and orbit around Sol also helps create the seasons we experience on Spaceshipearth1. In future articles, we’ll talk about the seasons of Earth, the meaning this has for life on Earth, and how this relates to the study of the movements of the exo-planets humans have, so far, viewed during the human “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time”.

Check out my newest astronomy site at http://astronomytonight.yolasite.com/.

Learn how NASA astronomers are planning on detecting extraterrestrial moons orbiting distant suns https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/searching-for-extraterrestrial-moons/.

Read about the latest news on life beyond Earth https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/25/the-search-for-life-beyond-earth-takes-a-turn-at-jupiter/.

Take a look at the latest natural color images taken by the Cassini spacecraft https://spaceshipearth1.wordpress.com/2013/12/22/cassini-spacecraft-show-views-of-the-solar-system-in-natural-color/.

Space Race Lends a Hand to the Doctors

Space exploration creates technological innovation

Astronomy News – One benefit of the space race for the human race is the spread of scientific knowledge and understanding developed through the space program to commercial and civil uses. The technology developed by NASA and its business partners during the years the American space program has been running is responsible for saving lives around the world. It has also been critical in the former and current development of techniques and equipment currently changing the landscape of many technical fields of study and endeavor in the United States of America and the world.

Medical research benefits

One field of scientific and medical study NASA’s research could aid is the interpretation of mammograms, ultrasound, and other medical images, and a possible reduction in the number of human errors made by doctors during the analysis of these medical images. This computer-based technology could in this way allow for earlier detection of medical abnormalities in human tissues and the saving of thousands of lives in the months and years ahead in the century of the environment.

The new technology is called the new MED-SEG system, developed by Bartron Medical Imaging Incorporated, a Connecticut-based firm, this system takes advantage of innovative software developed at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt to help analysis mammograms, ultrasounds, X-rays and other medical imagery. The United States Federal Food and Drug Administration has cleared the MED-SEG system for use with trained professionals in the United States that process medical images.

Better understanding of the Earth

NASA scientists originally developed and designed the software used for the MED-SEG system to look closely at features on the Earth’s surface and distinguish them from everything around them. The software is capable of grouping items into groups based upon useful criteria and this ability has been transferred to the job of analyzing medical images and helping doctors detect abnormalities in human tissue faster and more reliably. Using these software doctors can send images via a secure Internet connection to a Bartron data center for quick processing by the firms imaging software and after analysis, the images are quickly sent back to the doctors for them to use in the diagnosis of patients.

Check out my latest astronomy site at http://astronomytonight.yolasite.com/.

Read about NASA’s Messenger spacecraft and its mission to Mercury

Have you heard about the recent meteorite that exploded near the Ural Mountains

Read about the supernova astronomers are studying looking for a black hole they think was created during the explosion

MAVEN Looks for Clues to Mar’s Missing Atmosphere

Maven is improving our understanding of Mars
An artist’s conception of MAVEN in orbit around Mars

Where did Mar’s thicker atmosphere go?

This shot shows water ice clouds at the top that indicate a storm front on the Red Planet

Mars has always been a mystery

Astronomy News – Space scientists looking at the atmosphere of the Red Planet have a bit of a mystery on their hands as the facts would seem to indicate that Mars should have a much more prominent atmosphere. The formation of an atmosphere thick enough for liquid water to flow on the planet’s surface would have made the Red Planet a very promising place for the formation of life in our solar system. Planet scientists that have been studying Mars and the data collected by instruments they have focused on the Red Planet and are planning on journeying to the Red Planet to delve into the mystery of Mar’s atmosphere using MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission), sometime in the future. They want to see if they can find any clues as to where Mar’s atmosphere might have gone and the possible reasons it’s no longer present on Mars. They also want to see if they can determine a timeline for the disappearance of the Red Planet’s thick atmosphere, which could give them an idea whether Mar’s had time to develop life forms.

Planet scientists looking at the surface of Mars see features that lead them to believe that the surface of the Red Planet has been a cold and barren place for billions of years. This is hardly the environment for Earth-based life to develop, but surface features resembling water-channels of some kind and minerals scientists know will form in the presence of water have been found on the surface of Mars. These facts lead planet scientists to the possibility that Mars once had a much thicker atmosphere and was warm enough for liquid water to flow along the surface of Mars. The only problem is Mars currently has a very thin atmosphere unable to protect any liquid water that forms on the surface of Mars from the radiation of the sun and consequently any water would have been scoured from the planet’s surface, long ago. This environment would be the end-of-the-road for any known Earth-based life form, but it’s possible any Martian life forms that existed during the time when Mar’s thicker atmosphere went missing could have decided to go underground in order to survive. NASA plans on sending MAVEN out to the Red Planet to see if they can find any clues to the mystery of where Mar’s thicker atmosphere went, sometime in 2013, if NASA’s current plans stay on target.

Evidence exists suggesting Mars once had a lot more water

What are the possible reasons Mar’s no longer has a much thicker atmosphere? Space scientists at this point believe that Sol could be the main culprit in the disappearance of the Red Planet’s atmosphere, that Sol’s breath, or solar wind, is the possible force responsible for Mars no longer having a much thicker atmosphere possibly capable of supporting Earth-based life. They think it’s possible the electrically charged ions and electrons in the solar wind could have slowly stripped away Mar’s thicker atmosphere in its early days, after Mars lost its global magnetic field, which would have normally shielded the thicker atmosphere of the Red Planet from the force of Sol’s solar wind, just as Earth’s global magnetic field protects our atmosphere from the solar wind. Sol’s solar wind isn’t the only possibly culprit in the disappearance of Mar’s thicker atmosphere and NASA’s planning on sending MAVEN to the Red Planet within the next two years to take a look at what remains of the upper atmosphere of Mars, the ionosphere and the way the atmosphere of the Red Planet interacts with Sol and its solar wind.

Check out my newest astronomy work at http://astronomytonight.yolasite.com/, and then let me know what you think?

Read about NASA’s Messenger spacecraft and its mission to Mercury

Have you heard about the recent meteorite that exploded near the Ural Mountains

Read about the supernova astronomers are studying looking for a black hole they think was created during the explosion

Grab a Bahtinov Focus-Mask for Your Time-Machine-to-the-Stars

A focusing mask will save you time
A Bahtinov focusing mask will save you time for other things

Astronomy Products

An essential focusing tool for your “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time”

Small but useful if you need to focus a telescope
Achieving perfect focus can be time-consuming and difficult without a focusing mask to help you

Focusing your telescope

Astronomy Products – One of the toughest things to achieve when trying to take timeless pictures during your “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time” will be getting a sharp focus on your time-machine-to-the-stars. Professional astronomers and amateur astronomers in-the-know will use a focusing mask over the front of their time-machine-to-the-stars, rather than relying on trial and error to take pictures of unforgettable views during their trip to the stars.
One of the best and easiest to use and setup face masks on the market is the Bahtinov face-mask sold by Focus-Mask. Simply aim your time-machine-to-the-stars toward the star of your hearts desire, take a short 3 to 5-second exposure of your target, and then take a look at the three diffraction spikes on the Bahtinov face-mask. Adjust the focus on your time-machine-to-the-stars, take another 3 to 5-second exposure of your target, and once again examine the diffraction spikes. Continue this process until the middle diffraction spike lies directly between the other two spikes and you should be ready to take a shot of your hearts desire your kids will never forget.
 

Make sure you take your Bahtinov Focus mask with you

 
Before you head out on the next leg of your “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time” grab a Bahtinov face-mask or another face-mask, and your view and astrophotography will improve significantly, and you’ll have more time for timeless views, rather than spending time trying to focus your time-machine-to-the-stars.
 
Check out my newest astronomy site at  http://astronomytonight.yolasite.com/. If you have time, drop by and tell me what you think?

 

Read about NASA’s Messenger spacecraft and its mission to Mercury

Have you heard about the recent meteorite that exploded near the Ural Mountains

Read about the supernova astronomers are studying looking for a black hole they think was created during the explosion