The energy of the sun affects all life on Earth in ways we don’t even imagine
Humans have worshipped Sol for thousands of years
The original source of energy for all life on Earth, Sol has always ruled the lives and minds of human beings in many ways. The ruler of the daytime sky in ancient times and still today, Sol was worshipped by ancient humans of many cultures, and will always be a major force in the life of every human being on Earth. The Sumerians worshiped Utu as their sun god over two thousand years ago and modern humans worship the sun in their own way. We send spacecraft toward Sol, to study the lifecycle and physical and chemical characteristics of our sun, and determine everything we can about the sun.
Astronomy News – Hinode (Solar-B) is one spacecraft humans have sent out toward Sol in an attempt to delve deeper into the mysteries of the sun. A highly sophisticated observational satellite equipped with three solar telescopes, Hinode has recently revealed that the solar corona isn’t quite as static as solar scientists were first thinking. Hinode has surprised solar scientists of late with views of complex structures in the solar chromosphere, solar scientists use to think were static, but now believe to be dynamic structures flowing in time. This is making solar scientists rethink some of the previous ideas they had about the heating mechanisms and dynamics of the active solar corona.
Astronomers study the Sun continuously in an attempt to understand its mysteries
What questions will solar scientists working with Hinode try to answer next? They’ll be looking into why a hot corona exists above a cooler atmosphere? The origins and driving forces behind solar flares and the Sol’s magnetic field? The changes that the release of solar energy in its many forms has on interplanetary space in our solar system and life on Earth? The answers to these questions could be a key to eventually answering many of the questions the first stargazers and all humans have been asking for thousands of years. Solar scientists are also interested in knowing how magnetic changes near Sol’s surface effect the heliosphere, the outer atmosphere of Sol that extends beyond Pluto, and how severe changes in the heliosphere can cause satellites to malfunction and electrical blackouts on Earth.
Astronomy questions and answers – The Earth is constantly in motion relative to everything around it and rotates on its axis once every day and orbits Sol once per year. The Earth’s axis is defined as an imaginary line connecting the North and South poles and passing through the center of the planet. The Earth rotates west to east, viewers above the North Pole will see the Earth move counterclockwise from their view, and this is why to star gazers the Sun and stars appear to rise in the east and set in the west every day.
Looking upward at the night sky you don’t actually feel the relative motion of the Earth beneath you, despite this you’re rotating at about 1000 km/hr, depending on where you’re situated on the Earth. Standing in the exact center of the North Pole, your relative speed of rotation is much less than if you were standing on the equator, and the closer you’re to the equator, the faster the Earth beneath you is moving. Standing on the equator the Earth beneath you is rotating at about 1,670 km/hr, move half-way to the North or South Pole, and the speed of rotation of the Earth decreases significantly to about 1,275 km/hr, and once you are standing on the exact North or the South Pole the Earth isn’t rotating. The rotation of the Earth on its axis has consequences for the planet and all life existing on the spaceshipearth1. The daily rotation of the Earth on its axis creates the night and day cycle we all rely on, and this motion combined with the spaceship earth’s orbit around Sol produces the seasonal cycles we all experience during life on Earth. We’ll talk about the Earth’s daily cycle and what this means for life on Earth in future articles.
Everything on your “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time” is moving relative to everything else in the universe
The solar system is moving through the Milky Way
Astronomy questions and answers – Staring upward at the night sky above you get the notion you’re stationary in the universe, but nothing could be further from the truth. The Earth beneath you is spinning on its axis at 1000 km/hr, orbiting Sol at 100,000 km/hr, the Milky Way Galaxy at 800,000 km/hr while the solar system is moving relative to the local stars at 70,000 km/hr. In fact, the universe around us could be moving through a relative space and time of some unknown kind unimaginable to the human consciousness, and we would have no way of detecting this relative motion. We are all travelers in a sense on spaceshipearth1, which is the only habitable planet we know of for humankind that exists in the universe.
The Milky Way is moving through the universe
Everything appears to be moving relative to everything else we view as we look outward into space and time, which makes traveling through space and time a hazardous activity at the best of times. The universe you’ll experience on your “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time” isn’t the universe you experience on Earth. The relative motions of everything in the universe mean we’ll need to explain a few things to you about the way things work in the universe. In future articles, we’ll talk about the Earth’s rotation and orbit around Sol, and how this affects the planet, we’ll explain the Earth’s motion in the Milky Way Galaxy, and the motion of our solar system in relation to the nearby stars in the night sky. This will give you a base upon which to stand as we take you further out into the cosmos to explain the relative universe you’ll experience during your journey. Toward this goal, we’ll explain the meaning of Einstein’s General and Special Relativity for your trip and the way you’ll experience things during your journey.
Astronomy instruments designed to study the sun are specially designed for the job
Astronomy News – Astrophysicists studying stars use the closest star to Earth as their main test subject, Sol. Astronomers met recently during the American Astronomical Society meeting on May 26 in Miami to discuss the usefulness and reliability of three new techniques being used by current solar scientists to delve into the mysteries of the sun. “Scientists hope these three new techniques will help them predict the future behavior of Sol and jet streams, rhythmic oscillations, and magnetic activity all hold promise for solar scientists peering into the depths of the sun.”
David H. Hathaway of NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center used the meridional flow scientists studying Sol associate with an increase in the intensity of the solar cycle of Sol, to make a prediction that Sol’s current cycle will peak around 2013, although he thinks this peak will be about half the size of the past three solar peaks.
Sol has been keeping astronomers busy lately
Sushanta Tripathy and Frank Hill of the National Solar Observatory have been studying vibrations from Sol’s surface they call rhythmic oscillations. Their studies have found a strong correlation exists between rhythmic oscillations and the activity level of Sol. They used their data to show that during the present minimum activity period of Sol, a double minimum in solar activity occurred, which they think could in some way relate to Sol’s current in activity.
Julia Saba of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center has been taking a look at the data collected concerning the activity of Sol’s magnetic field. Her work has helped her predict, up to 18 months ahead of time, when Cycle 24 would start, and to speculate that Cycle 24 will be weaker and longer in length than average.
Oldest stars in Milky Way Galaxy appear to be captured parts of other galaxies
The Milky Way will collide with Andromeda in a few billion years
Astronomy News – Astronomers studying the oldest stars in the Milky Way Galaxy think that the most ancient stars in the Milky Way Galaxy could be parts of other galaxies that have been transferred or captured by the Milky Way Galaxy during gigantic collisions between galaxies. A new computer simulation conducted as part of a study supporting this idea is expected to appear in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Andrew Cooper, of Durham University in the United Kingdom, and his fellow astronomers simulated the evolution of stars and dark matter, from 13 billion years ago to present time.
The Milky Way Galaxy has a disc containing young stars, including Sol while the surrounding stellar halo is the home of stars as old as 10 billion years. Astronomers journeying to this part of space using their time machine to the stars search the stellar halo, much like archaeologists search ancient rock strata, to discern facts about the formation and life cycle of the Milky Way Galaxy. Astronomers in the United Kingdom report that the stellar halo contains stellar debris left over from a period of time during the life cycle of the Milky Way Galaxy that ended about 5 billion years ago when smaller galaxies collided and ripped each other apart.
Astronomers have a long time to wait for the impending collision
Board your time machine to the stars near the end of October
Comet 103P/Hartley is an astronomy treat during September
Astronomy News – September is the time for you and the kids to begin planning a journey to a celestial body that will be at its closest point to Earth and Sol, sometime near the end of October. Comet 103P/Hartley has been in the news, of late, as NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft will fly by Comet 103P/Hartley, in the first part of November. Observers boarding their time-machine-to-the-stars at this time should get a nice view of Comet 103P/Hartley and it might even be possible to view this celestial object with the naked eye, depending on the environmental conditions at the time of viewing. A good pair of viewing binoculars should give viewers a great view of Comet 103P/Hartley, but your time machine to the stars is the best way to journey to Comet 103P/Hartley, to have a look at a celestial object that only becomes viewable during specific periods of time. Comet 103P/Hartley is returning to Earth for the fourth time since Australian astronomer Malcolm Hartley discovered her in 1986. A short-period comet that loops through the inner solar system, Comet 103P/Hartley’s space journey takes about 6.5 years to complete one orbit. You should arrive at Comet 103P/Hartley just before the arrival of NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft.
Deep Impact Spacecraft making astronomy history
During the visit by NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft, space scientists will use the information and data provided by onboard cameras and instruments to help them pierce the shroud surrounding the comet and hopefully determine the source of dusty jets viewed on Comet 103P/Hartley. Dusty jets that have been dancing in the dreams of space scientists, since they first viewed them through Earth-bound telescopes, which show the effect as a pinprick of light at the center of the comet’s glow. Astronomers and space scientists refer to this effect as a comet’s “false nucleus”, which hides the comets real surface from view.
Comet 103P/Hartley is becoming more visible to stargazers as it approaches the Earth and Sun. This celestial object could reach magnitude 10 near the end of September, which will make viewing easier for star gazers, and allow space scientists to study this comet closer. The best time for stargazers to view Comet 103P/Hartley will be under a dark sky starting around September 24. Comet 103P/Hartley will be in the arms of Cassiopeia at this time, south of Cassiopeia’s w-shaped asterism, and will be viewable throughout the night.
Astronomy News – Focus your time machine to the stars on the features along the Moon’s limb during the month of September. This is a rare chance to view a few limb sections of the Moon that star gazers have dreamed of taking a closer look at for generations, during a single month of the year. Astronauts didn’t report any green cheese, so our ancestors can rest safely as we have ruled out green cheese as the main ingredient in the physical composition of the Moon.
Watch as the crescent Moon waxes, between September 11 to 13, and take a close look at Mare Crisium, and how far this feature is from the eastern edge. The features on the limb that you’ll notice will be the elongated dark patches of Mare Smythii and Mare Marginis. The regions near the south-eastern limb will feature primarily bright highlands that will slowly change as the 18 of September approaches and the mottled Mare Australe rotates into view.
Focus your astronomy telescope on the Moon
Focus your time machine to the stars in the hilly south polar region a few nights later and you’ll see nice 3D effects that catch-the-eye of the viewer and Mare Smythii and Mare Marginis will have disappeared from view.
A Full Moon will greet star gazers on September 23 and this is the perfect time to take a look at some of the best features on the Moon’s surface. Mare Orientale will appear along the Moon’s western limb on September 23. A magnificent impact basin, with multiple visible rings and lava lakes, get your timing right over the next few nights, and you’ll witness a scene few humans have experienced. Watch patiently and you’ll see the rings appear in profile first. This scene will slowly change as the Moon’s libration and the rotation of the Earth bring the lava pools of Lacus Veris and Lacus Autumni into view.