Hubble Views New Galaxy Being Formed

Galaxy NGC 6052 is being formed into a single structure from the merging of two galaxies of similar mass 

Two become one
NGC 6052 still shows definite signs of a recent collision between two smaller galaxies of similar mass. Credits: NASA/ESA

Space news ( February 18, 2016) – 230 million light-years away in the constellation Hercules – 

This breathtaking Hubble image of galaxy NGC 6052 was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Astronomers originally classified this different looking island universe as an irregular galaxy, but after more study, they believe it’s a new galaxy in the process of being formed.  

Also called Mrk 297, LEDA 57039 and Arp 209, NGC 6052 has previously been described as having a rather unusual structure, as seen in the regions of strong emission and the irregular appendage on its eastern side as seen in this image. 

Looking at the image, it’s not easy to see the traces of two separate galaxies in the act of merging. Attracted by gravity, two smaller galaxies with similar mass were slowly drawn together, before colliding to form NGC 6052.  

As the merging process progresses, individual stars are knocked out of their original orbits and onto new ones that take them far outside the galaxy. The starlight in the image appears quite chaotic in shape and form, but over time, the chaotic shape of this new galaxy will settle down.  

Astronomers conducting a survey of nearby galaxies detected all types on the Hubble Tuning Fork, with about ten percent on average being classified as irregular or unusual using the Hubble classification system. The sample size in this survey is rather small, though, when you compare it to the size of the cosmos. 

The percentages of different galaxy types seem to vary according to the environment, so astronomers expect these numbers to change as the survey sample size increases. 

A titanic collision

Billions of years in the future, Andromeda and the Milky Way will have a similarly fated meeting, but this galactic merger will be a cosmic collision of a different sort. Andromeda has much more mass and is bigger than the Milky Way and astronomers expect this meeting to produce a different looking island universe than NGC 6052. 

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Hubble Survey Links Galaxy Mergers with Presence of Active Galactic Nuclei

That are thought to be the result of huge volumes of heated matter circling around and being consumed by a supermassive black hole

Astrophysicists have wondered since discovering relativistic jets what could power such an awesome display of power. Space scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope just completed the largest survey ever conducted on this question. What they found might surprize you?
Astrophysicists have wondered since discovering relativistic jets what could power such an awesome display of power. Space scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope just completed the largest survey ever conducted on this question. What they found might surprise you?

Space news (August 12, 2015) – Astrophysics; studying galaxies with extremely luminous centers looking for clues to high-speed, radio-signal-emitting jets extending thousands of light-years into space

NASA space scientists working with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope think they have found a possible link between galaxy mergers and the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN).

With a
With a “panchromatic” grasp of light extending from the ultraviolet through the visible and into the infrared, is an extremely powerful imaging instrument, extending Hubble’s capabilities by seeing deeper into the universe. WFC3 is viewed as an important bridge to the infrared observations that will be carried out with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) following its launch in 2013.

“The galaxies that host these relativistic jets give out large amounts of radiation at radio wavelengths,” explains Marco.“By using Hubble’s WFC3 camera we found that almost all of the galaxies with large amounts of radio emission, implying the presence of jets, were associated with mergers. However, it was not only the galaxies containing jets that showed evidence of mergers!”

Active galactic nuclei refer to the luminous center of a small percentage of galaxies viewed during the human journey to the beginning of space and time. Luminous centers space scientists often detect emitting two high-speed jets of plasma in opposite directions at right angles to the disk of matter surrounding the supermassive black hole believed to exist near the center of these galaxies. Powerful, radio-signal-emitting jets astrophysicists call relativistic jets they think could be powered by huge volumes of heated matter circling around and eventually being consumed by the supermassive black hole. Heated matter astrophysicists think could have been provided by the chaos of a recent merger with another galaxy.

How did they conduct the study?

NASA astrophysicists studied a large selection of galaxies with extremely luminous centers looking for signs of a recent merger with another galaxy. Data from several different additional studies was used to enhance the data set. Space scientists in this study looked at five different types of galaxies; two types with relativistic jets, two with luminous cores but no jets, and a set of regular inactive galaxies. 

What did they find?

Galactic Wrecks Far from Earth: These images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope's ACS in 2004 and 2005 show four examples of interacting galaxies far away from Earth. The galaxies, beginning at far left, are shown at various stages of the merger process. The top row displays merging galaxies found in different regions of a large survey known as the AEGIS. More detailed views are in the bottom row of images. (Credit: NASA; ESA; J. Lotz, STScI; M. Davis, University of California, Berkeley; and A. Koekemoer, STScI)
Galactic Wrecks Far from Earth: These images from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope’s ACS in 2004 and 2005 show four examples of interacting galaxies far away from Earth. The galaxies, beginning at far left, are shown at various stages of the merger process. The top row displays merging galaxies found in different regions of a large survey known as the AEGIS. More detailed views are in the bottom row of images. (Credit: NASA; ESA; J. Lotz, STScI; M. Davis, University of California, Berkeley; and A. Koekemoer, STScI)

They found a large percentage of the galaxies viewed showed evidence of mergers with other galaxies, including all those with extremely luminous centers. They also found that a very small percentage of galaxies viewed formed AGNs with powerful radio emissions and even less relativistic jets extending thousands of light-years into space.

“We found that most merger events in themselves do not actually result in the creation of AGNs with powerful radio emission,” added co-author Roberto Gilli from Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy. “About 40% of the other galaxies we looked at had also experienced a merger and yet had failed to produce the spectacular radio emissions and jets of their counterparts.”

What’s next?

Astrophysicists looking at the data provided through this survey of galaxies with AGNs believe it could be necessary for galaxies to merge to produce a host supermassive black hole with relativistic jets. They also think additional parameters need to exist for the merger to result in this spectacular and awe-inspiring sight. Possibly the result of two black holes of similar mass merging could power these high-speed jets viewed during the human journey to the beginning of space and time as excess energy is extracted from the black hole’s rotational energy is added to the mix.

“There are two ways in which mergers are likely to affect the central black hole. The first would be an increase in the amount of gas being driven towards the galaxy’s centre, adding mass to both the black hole and the disc of matter around it,” explains Colin Norman, co-author of the paper. “But this process should affect black holes in all merging galaxies, and yet not all merging galaxies with black holes end up with jets, so it is not enough to explain how these jets come about. The other possibility is that a merger between two massive galaxies causes two black holes of a similar mass to also merge. It could be that a particular breed of merger between two black holes produces a single spinning supermassive black hole, accounting for the production of jets.”

What’s next?

Astrophysicists and space scientists will now use both the Hubble Space Telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to expand the search for additional galaxies with extremely luminous centers. This will enhance the survey and provide more data on additional parameters to help shed light on galaxies with AGNs. For now, we can only say it appears galaxies viewed exhibiting relativistic jets have merged with other galaxies.

Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to
Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA)

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