NASA WISE and Spitzer Telescopes Discover Titanic Galaxy Cluster

Astronomers say this monster was one of the biggest galaxy clusters of its time

The galaxy cluster called MOO J1142+1527 can be seen here as it existed when light left it 8.5 billion years ago. The red galaxies at the center of the image make up the heart of the galaxy cluster. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Gemini/CARMA
The galaxy cluster called MOO J1142+1527 can be seen here as it existed when light left it 8.5 billion years ago. The red galaxies at the center of the image make up the heart of the galaxy cluster.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Gemini/CARMA

Space news (November 07, 2015) – 8.5 billion light-years away in a remote part of the cosmos –

NASA astronomers conducting a survey of galaxy clusters using the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) recently viewed one of the biggest galaxy clusters ever recorded. Called Massive Overdense Object (MOO) J1142+1527, this monster galaxy cluster is in a very distant part of the universe and existed around 4 billion years before the birth of Earth.

8.5 billion years have passed since the light seen in the image above reached us here on Earth. MOO J1142+1527 has grown bigger during this time as more galaxies were drawn into the cluster and become even more extreme as far as galaxy clusters go. Containing thousands of galaxies, each with hundreds of billions of individual suns, galaxy clusters like this are some of the biggest structures in the cosmos. 

It’s the combination of Spitzer and WISE that lets us go from a quarter billion objects down to the most massive galaxy clusters in the sky,” said Anthony Gonzalez of the University of Florida in Gainesville, lead author of a new study published in the Oct. 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Based on our understanding of how galaxy clusters grow from the very beginning of our universe, this cluster should be one of the five most massive in existence at that time,” said co-author Peter Eisenhardt, the project scientist for WISE at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

Astronomers conducting this survey will now spend the next year sifting through more than 1,700 more galaxy clusters detected by the combined power of NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer looking for the largest galaxy clusters in the cosmos. Once they find the biggest galaxy clusters in the universe, they’ll use the data obtained to investigate their evolution and the extreme environments they’re found.

Once we find the most massive clusters, we can start to investigate how galaxies evolved in these extreme environments,” said Gonzalez.

You can learn more about the mission of the Spitzer Space Telescope here.

Discover the voyage and discoveries of WISE here.

Learn more about galaxy clusters here.

Read about the space missions of NASA here.

Learn more about the final days of stars.

Read about the Little Gem Nebula.

Read about plans for man to travel to Mars in the decades ahead.

Radio Phoenix Erupts After Collision Between Galaxy Clusters in Abell 1033

Produced by shockwaves compressing and re-energizing dormant clouds of electrons that shine at radio frequencies

 High-energy X-rays detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory are seen in pink in the image above, while radio data from NSF's Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is green. A map of the density of galaxies in the region, seen in blue was obtained by analysis of optical data.

High-energy X-rays detected by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory are seen in pink in the image above, while radio data from NSF’s Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is green. A map of the density of galaxies in the region, seen in blue was obtained by analysis of optical data.

Space news (September 14, 2015) – 1.6 billion light-years from Earth in Abell 1033 –

Astronomers and astrophysicists looking at data provided by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), NSF’s Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have detected what they refer to as a “Radio Phoenix“.

Consisting of an array of 14 radio telescopes with a diameter of 25 meters each, the Dutch Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope simulates a radio telescope with a diameter of up to 2.7 kilometres. Image credit Universe Awareness
Consisting of an array of 14 radio telescopes with a diameter of 25 meters each, the Dutch Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope simulates a radio telescope with a diameter of up to 2.7 kilometers. Image credit Universe Awareness

A Radio Phoenix as seen in the multiwavelength photo at the top of the page is a cloud of bright radio emission of high-energy electrons thousands of light-years across that originally erupted from the supermassive black hole near the center of Abell 1033. As the cloud expanded it faded over time as electrons within lost energy, until millions of years later it was reborn when shockwaves from a collision between Abell 1033 and another galaxy cluster compressed and re-energized the electrons, causing the cloud to shine as a Radio Phoenix.

This Radio Phoenix is expected to be reborn for only a few tens of million of years, just a blink of an eye on cosmic scales. The intense density and pressures in the region and powerful magnetic fields near the center of Abell 1033 will cause it to eventually fade into darkness.

To learn more about the Chandra X-ray Observatory go here.

Discover NSF’s Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) here.

Learn more about the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope here.

Learn more about NASA’s space mission here.

Go here to discover more about the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

Learn more about Pluto and a recent visit by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft.

Discover the search for the missing link in black hole evolution.

Read about plans for the human journey to the beginning of space and time to head to Jupiter’s moon Europa to look for signs of life.

Turbulence Could be a Reason Some Galaxy Clusters Don’t Form Huge Numbers of Stars

Turbulence created by supermassive black holes near the center of galaxies within galaxy clusters could be the culprit 

Chandra observations of the Perseus and Virgo galaxy clusters suggest turbulence may be preventing hot gas there from cooling, addressing a long-standing question of galaxy clusters do not form large numbers of stars. Image Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al
Chandra observations of the Perseus and Virgo galaxy clusters suggest turbulence may be preventing hot gas there from cooling, addressing a long-standing question of galaxy clusters do not form large numbers of stars.
Image Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al

Space news ( December 18, 2014) Deep within the Perseus and Virgo galaxy clusters – 

NASA astronomers studying the birth and death of stars in huge galaxy clusters recently viewed the Perseus and Virgo galaxy clusters, using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, looking for clues to the mystery surrounding the lack of stars in these galaxy clusters.

The Chandra X-ray Observatory (formerly the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, or AXAF) was built around a high-resolution grazing incidence X-ray telescope which will make astrophysical observations in the 0.09 to 10.0 keV energy range.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (formerly the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, or AXAF) was built around a high-resolution grazing incidence X-ray telescope which will make astrophysical observations in the 0.09 to 10.0 keV energy range.

Space scientists believe clues suggest turbulence within Perseus and Virgo could be a cause of the lack of stars seen during our journey. Turbulence which could be preventing hot gas within these behemoths from cooling and ultimately forming more stars.

The hot gasses within Perseus and Virgo are believed to be one of the heaviest components of these galaxy clusters. Over a long period of time, the hot gasses near the centers of these galaxy clusters should cool to the point where stars form at an amazing rate, according to the latest theories.  But this picture isn’t the one NASA astronomers are seeing during our journey, though, and this has them wondering and searching for answers.

“We knew that somehow the gas in clusters is being heated to prevent it cooling and forming stars. The question was exactly how,” said Irina Zhuravleva of Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, who led the study that appears in the latest online issue of the journal Nature. “We think we may have found evidence that the heat is channeled from turbulent motions, which we identify from signatures recorded in X-ray images.”

What’s causing turbulence within Perseus and Virgo?

Space scientists have previously recorded data indicating supermassive black holes, believed to be located near the center of large galaxies in the middle of galaxy clusters, jet huge quantities of energetic particles into the surrounding hot gas.

Powerful jets that space scientists believe create giant cavities in the hot gas and transfer energy that generates turbulence, which then disperses keeping the gas hot for billions of years.

“Any gas motions from the turbulence will eventually decay, releasing their energy to the gas,” said co-author Eugene Churazov of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Munich, Germany. “But the gas won’t cool if turbulence is strong enough and generated often enough.”

What is next for space scientists?

Space scientists newest data indicates this scenario appears to have unfolded within the Perseus and Virgo galaxy clusters.

“Our work gives us an estimate of how much turbulence is generated in these clusters,” said Alexander Schekochihin of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. “From what we’ve determined so far, there’s enough turbulence to balance the cooling of the gas.

Some space scientists involved in the study think there could be other forces at work creating turbulence, interactions between galaxies within galaxy clusters could also be a major factor.

Evidence appears to support a “feedback” model involving black holes near the center of galaxies within the Perseus and Virgo galaxy clusters.

Space scientists need to collect more data on each galaxy cluster to estimate the turbulence in the hot gas better. This will give them a better picture of what’s really going on and why galaxy clusters don’t form large numbers of stars?

You can view an interactive image, podcast, and video with more information concerning this research here.

You can find more information on the Chandra X-Ray Space Telescope here.

For more information on NASA’s Chandra space mission visit here.

Learn more about Neptune-size exoplanets.

Learn about NEOWISE’s one year mission.

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