Lenticular galaxy changing into a less defined elliptical galaxy
Space news (The evolution of galaxies: transition periods; lenticular galaxies) – 140 million light-years away toward the constellation Virgo –
The Hubble Space Telescope image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5010 seen here shows an older spiral galaxy in transition to an elliptical type. Lenticular type galaxies are considered a transition phase between spiral and elliptical galaxies. Presently, it has characteristics astronomers find in both spiral and elliptical galaxies, but will eventually evolve into a less defined elliptical galaxy.
All of the blue, fast-living stars that existed in spiral galaxy NGC 5010 have aged into older red stars as it transitioned into a lenticular galaxy. The vast majority of stars seen in this image are red and elderly, with only a few younger, blue stars sprinkled like fairy dust across dark, dusty, remnants of spiral arms. It has also started to develop a bigger bulge in its disk as it starts to take on a more rounded shape characteristic of lenticular and sometimes elliptical galaxies.
The orientation of the galaxy’s sideways to the telescope in this image. View elliptical galaxy NGC 5010 far in the future from the same reference point and older, red stars will exist within it. It could have a circular, long, narrow or even cigar shape since all are characteristic of elliptical galaxies. No matter its shape, this elliptical galaxy will contain even less gas and dust than it did when it was younger and brighter.
Astronomers studying galaxies have discovered something unusual
Astronomy news (November 29, 2013) – Astronomers have found galaxies of different shapes and sizes during the human journey to the beginning of space and time, but the rectangular-shaped galaxy astronomers recently located 68 million light-years away in Eridanus the River doesn’t fit any current theory of what a galaxy should look like. Leda 074886 is one of about 250 galaxies in the cluster of galaxies around the massive galaxy NGC 1407, which lies about 70 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Eridanus.
Astronomers wonder about this rectangular shape
Astronomers detected LEDA 074886 in a wide-field image taken with the Japanese Subaru Telescope. After analysis astronomers detected a stellar disk inside the rectangular-galaxy, aligned edge-on to our line of sight in the Milky Way. This disk is rotating at speeds up to 33 km/second, but at this point they’re not sure it has a spiral structure characteristic of a galaxy.
Astronomers classify galaxies according to their overall shape, using three general categories; elliptical, disk-like, and irregular. The unusual shape of the galaxy designated LEDA 074886 doesn’t fit into any of these three categories. The question astronomers are asking is how did this galaxy come to have this unusual shape?
Could this rectangular shaped galaxy be the result of a galactic collision?
Is the unusual shape of this galaxy due to a collision with another galaxy, perhaps between two spiral galaxies? Astronomers models indicate this scenario could possibly result in the stars of each galaxy flinging outward to form a rectangular shape. Astronomers also detected a disk of bluish, relatively young stars near the center of this galaxy, which they believe could indicate a recent collision with another small galaxy. This discovery should help astronomers model the formation and evolution of galaxies better and perhaps get a picture of the fated collision between the Milky Way and Andromeda 4 billion years from now.
Astronomers are looking at NGC 3982 and other galaxies for a supernova to study
Put your name in the history books
Astronomy News – The Milky Way use to be thought of as a spiral galaxy, but recently collected data seems to suggest to astronomers that the Milky Way could, in fact, be a barred galaxy. Either way, the human “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time” has revealed to astronomers a seeming infinity of galaxies beyond the celestial horizon we view from Earth. Spiral galaxies abound in amazing numbers in the universe, elliptical and barred galaxies have been viewed in endless numbers beyond the celestial horizon, and none of these galaxies look exactly the same. Beyond the horizon we view from Earth, the universe astronomers view goes on and on, without an end in sight, but everything we humans have experienced has an ending and beginning. Can the universe truly go on forever, or is it conceivable that somewhere beyond the celestial horizon there exists boundaries beyond which the known universe ends and another reality exists?
Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope recently journeyed to spiral galaxy NGC 3982 to look for clues to these questions and others that have fascinated humans since the time of the first-star gazers. A face-on spiral galaxy first discovered by William Herschel on April 14, 1789, NGC 3982’s spiraling arms are lined with pink star-forming regions of space and time glowing with hydrogen, newborn blue star clusters, and star dust capable of providing the raw material for future generations of stars. Astronomers believe hidden in the nucleus of NGC 3982 is a generation of older stars, which become more densely packed as the distance to the center of the nucleus of NGC 3982 lessens. NGC 3982 is an amazing 68 million light-years distant in the constellation Ursa Major and is currently speeding away from the center of the Milky Way Galaxy at a recession velocity of 1187 km/s. NGC 3982 is also a smaller spiral galaxy and spans about 30,000 light years, which is only about one-third the size of our own Milky Way Galaxy.
Astronomers use the Hubble Space Telescope
Astronomers are looking at spiral galaxy NGC 3982, and other similar galaxies, in the hopes of viewing a celestial event of amazing intensity and power, a supernova. They’re currently using the instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope to look for a supernova in the spiral and other galaxies, but soon the James Webb Space Telescope will add its star gazing ability to this job. They want to check current theories on how supernova occur and possibly the types of stars that end their lives in these spectacular explosions. Their search will be primarily in the bright blue knots in NGC 3982’s spiral arms, but they’ll certainly expand their search as the human “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time” continues to expand.
Astronomy News – The galaxies you’ll view during your “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time” are like grains of sand on the beach, or snowflakes, with no two galaxies looking exactly the same to viewers. Astronomers have also viewed a number of different types of galaxies and they have given each a specific name, usually based on the overall shape of the galaxy. Composed of millions or even billions of individual stars, each particular type of galaxy viewed, so far, has also been given a designation, or name, by which we all can tell the difference between the individual galaxies in the infinity of galaxies we view in the night sky above us. It was Edwin Hubble who first did the work with photographic plates taken during the early part of the twentieth century that allowed him to determine the nebulous objects astronomers had been viewing for years were actually vast islands of stars we call galaxies. Edwin Hubble also cataloged the galaxies he viewed into three major classes, or types, according to their physical shape.
A percentage of the galaxies will resemble huge pinwheels and have been given the name spiral galaxies by astronomers viewing these objects. Spiral galaxies are generally composed of a bright central nucleus with older stars, with two sweeping arms of younger stars, open clusters, and diffuse nebulae unfolding in space and time. The Milky Way in which we reside is one such spiral galaxy among the multitudes of such galaxies in the universe and Sol is located about two-thirds of the way from the center of the galaxy.
Astronomers have broken down spiral galaxies into five subclasses of spiral galaxies, according to how tightly the arms of a galaxy are wrapped around the nucleus of the spiral galaxy in question. Spiral galaxies with the tightest arms are Sa spiral galaxies, Sb spiral galaxies are next in order, with more loosely armed Sc, comparatively rare Sd, and S0 spiral galaxies almost appearing to be a transitional form between spiral galaxies and another type of galaxy.
Barred galaxies exhibit an odd, bar-like feature passing through the nucleus of the galaxy, and the spiral arms of barred galaxies start to unwind from the ends of the central bar, rather than from the nucleus of the galaxy. Barred galaxies are also classified according to the tightness of the spiral arms and have designations SBa, SBb, and SBc.
Elliptical galaxies are the most plentiful type of galaxy we have viewed during the human “Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time.” Elliptical galaxies actually have no hint of spiral arms and appear as huge, oval spheres with no discernible internal structure of any kind. Elliptical galaxies are classified according to how round they appear, with E0 elliptical galaxies appearing almost perfectly spherical, E4 elliptical galaxies looking like an oddly shaped football, and E7 elliptical galaxies looking flat as compared to the other classifications. Elliptical galaxies appear to be composed mostly of older stars and you’ll notice they lack luminosity as you view them.
Infinite is a human term
Galaxies that appear to have no distinctive shape are referred to as irregular galaxies and irregular galaxies have been viewed a lot less in the night sky than the other types. This doesn’t necessarily mean irregular galaxies appear in fewer numbers in the universe, but it does mean that the percentage of the universe we have viewed from Earth appears to contain fewer irregular galaxies than the other types.
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The Human Journey to the Beginning of Space and Time.
Oldest stars in Milky Way Galaxy appear to be captured parts of other galaxies
The Milky Way will collide with Andromeda in a few billion years
Astronomy News – Astronomers studying the oldest stars in the Milky Way Galaxy think that the most ancient stars in the Milky Way Galaxy could be parts of other galaxies that have been transferred or captured by the Milky Way Galaxy during gigantic collisions between galaxies. A new computer simulation conducted as part of a study supporting this idea is expected to appear in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Andrew Cooper, of Durham University in the United Kingdom, and his fellow astronomers simulated the evolution of stars and dark matter, from 13 billion years ago to present time.
The Milky Way Galaxy has a disc containing young stars, including Sol while the surrounding stellar halo is the home of stars as old as 10 billion years. Astronomers journeying to this part of space using their time machine to the stars search the stellar halo, much like archaeologists search ancient rock strata, to discern facts about the formation and life cycle of the Milky Way Galaxy. Astronomers in the United Kingdom report that the stellar halo contains stellar debris left over from a period of time during the life cycle of the Milky Way Galaxy that ended about 5 billion years ago when smaller galaxies collided and ripped each other apart.
Astronomers have a long time to wait for the impending collision
The first astronomers thought they saw god in the night sky
Astronomy News – the first astronomers –
Take a walk deep into the darkness of a cold, clear night, far from the glare of interfering human light, and you can gaze upward at a night sky filled with stars-of-wonder, much like your first ancestors did for the first time thousands of years in the past. Lay the back of your head on the cold Earth for a few hours and stare deeply into the vastness of the night sky before your eyes and watch the stars parade across the sky as they have since the birth of spaceshipearth1. Your mind will be sharing common thoughts and feelings of awe, wonder, and smallness with the billions of humans that have witnessed this scene and thousands of generations of star-gazing ancestors that walked the Earth before you.
Modern astronomy has shined the light of discovery on the cosmos
Thousands of years after the time of these star-gazing ancestors, modern science has managed to shine the light of discovery on many questions concerning the universe we live in and the true role humans play in the grand cosmic-play that’s unfolding before your eyes. The relative age of the Earth has been determined in relation to the universe and scientists delve deeper into the mystery of how the seemingly simple starting ingredients of the cosmic womb can lead to the rich diversity of life on one dusty ball of water far from Nowhere. We will embark on a cosmic journey of discovery from the beginning of time to the present day as we survey the contents of the night sky close to spaceship Earth, measure the scale and majesty of the universe in human terms, and the relative motion of the Earth as it travels through space and time to its ultimate destination. This cosmic journey will allow your mind to develop a larger picture of the universe around you as human scientists understand it and provide you with the knowledge and understanding that can serve as a framework upon which you can build your mental model of the universe and determine your part in the grand cosmic play in which you find yourself.
An Earth-centred universe
After staring in wonder at the mystery of the stars above your head for a time it will be easy to understand how our ancestors looking upward at a sun, stars, moon and planets that relative to your point of view seem to revolve around spaceship Earth believed the Earth was the center of the known universe and all we survey. The heavenly bodies above your head will appear to circle above you as you stare upwards at the night sky and you won’t feel the spinning motion of the moving Earth beneath you as it spins on its axis through the cold darkness of space and time. These facts make it easy to believe and develop a belief system with the Earth at the center and humans standing on the pedestal of supremacy in the universe.
A sun-centered solar system
In the intervening years since our common star-gazing ancestors first starred upwards in wonder at the night sky, scientists have determined that spaceship Earth is a nondescript little ball of dusty water circling an average sun among an infinity of space and time taking part in a cosmic dance that has continued unabated for billions of years. The human journey through space and time to the present moment in the history of planet Earth and the universe has been filled with pitfalls we as a race have managed to avoid until this moment in the history of space and time. Humans have for the most part managed to change ancient beliefs in an Earth-centered universe that once seemed firmly based in common sense and logic to a more modern view of the universe around us. Science has provided the verifiable facts we need to determine the truth of human experience and strengthen natural bonds to the vast universe you see before your eyes in ways our first star-gazing ancestors could never imagine. This has allowed scientists to develop a cosmic picture of the universe as our senses experience it that can allow us to create a mental picture of the real universe we journey through on a daily basis. Take a cosmic journey of discovery and wonder as we travel through space and time to the beginning of the universe and back again and shine the light of discovery on mysteries deep in the minds and hearts of all humans that have walked the Earth since mankind first starred upward in wonder and awe at the night sky above your head and return to the place of our birth, the stars above us.
The Milky Way galaxy
In terms of the part humans have played and still play in the big picture of the universe, the Earth we live on is one of a number of planets circling the sun we call Sol, along with thousands of asteroids and comets that make up our solar system and the uncountable number of dust particles floating between them. The universal address of the Sol system is the Milky Way galaxy, just past the half-way point from the center of the galaxy to the edge of the galactic disc. Just one of billions or possibly a trillion stars or more making up the Milky Way galaxy that shines their energy into the cold darkness of space, Sol is an average sun, just like billions you can see looking up into the night sky above you. A nondescript, average-looking ball of hydrogen and helium easily overlooked among the infinity of stars that make up the island of suns space scientists refer to as the Milky Way galaxy. The Milky Way is, in fact, a rather large galaxy in comparison to the galaxies that are part of what space scientists call the Milky Way’s local supercluster of galaxies. Just one of a seeming infinity of galaxies space scientists see as they journey visually into the cold darkness of space and time before you, the Milky Way galaxy is part of the 40 or more galaxies space scientists refer to as the local group of galaxies in the part of the universe we reside.
Just an insignificant dusty little ball of water
The night sky you see above you might appear to be web-like in nature, with galaxies and clusters arranged in huge sheets and chains of stars that seemingly go on forever and ever. Pockets of stars are dotted across the sky before your eyes, forming giant stellar bodies called superclusters of galaxies that in the case of the Milky Way galaxy are referred to as the local group of the Milky Way galaxy, with vast voids of space and time separating them containing occasional lone galaxies. The universe before your eyes is made up of the sum total of the matter and energy contained within the superclusters and voids between them and there are humans that believe this fact makes human existence and the Milky Way galaxy relatively insignificant in the bigger picture of the universe and space and time. The human ability and desire to continuously delve into the mysteries of the universe around us and improve our place in the cosmic picture could be the difference that tips the balance in favor of humans being a significant contributor to the universe, though, despite our relative insignificance in the cosmic picture before your eyes.
The miracle of life?
One question you might be pondering as you stare into the vastness of the night sky above your head is how did the young human race come to be born amid the seeming infinity of space and time before your eyes? Modern science tells us we humans are a relative newcomer to the endlessness of space and time and the battle for survival on planet Earth. The journey upon which we embark will examine the evidence presented by scientists to support the belief in the relative insignificance of Sol, the planet Earth, and the miracle of the birth of sentient life on one little ball of dusty water in the universe. The first part of the journey we undertake will take us through the history of the development of present theories and evidence presented by space scientists to support their belief in the relative insignificance of all we know and believe to be true and important.
An expanding universe
Looking upward into the vastness of space and time of the night sky above it isn’t possible to ascertain that space scientists have determined the stars in the galaxies above you are speeding away from each other at a rate that has been measured relative to the universe you see. Scientists have measured the relative rate at which the distances between the galaxies above you’re increasing with the passage of time. The important point in this fact is that if the universe around us is expanding, all of space and time you see above you must have once been closer together. Relative estimates calculated by space scientists indicates this rate of expansion must have started at least 14 billion years in the past. This beginning of the universe space scientists have called the Big Bang, and while overall the universe has continued to expand unabated, there are areas in the vastness of space and time where the force of gravity has overcome the force of expansion created by the Big Bang. This is significant because it means that while the galaxies above you in the night sky continue to speed away from the center of the Big Bang individually, the parts within galaxies are not expanding relative to one another. In contrast, galaxies and galaxy clusters continue to expand relative to one another, despite the force of gravity pulling them together and to form into larger clumps of gas and dust, which space scientists have dubbed stars and planets. The forming of large clumps of gas and dust is part of what space scientists call the life cycle of the stars, planets, and galaxies, and although these stellar bodies are not life forms as space scientists define them, they do go through a life cycle of sorts that scientists have documented and analysed at length.